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jRINE CORPS LIBRARY 



CAMOUFLAGE 




FIELD TRAINING MANUAL 

SECOND MARINE DIVISION 
1942 



MARINE CORPS 
HISTORICAL 

JUL 1 6 1968 
HIST fttfERENCE SEC 



FOREWORD 



This manual was prepared by the Second Marine 
Division Camouflage School by direction of 
Major General John Marston. 

Acknowledgement Is due American and British 
Army reference sources, and to the Twentieth 
Century-Fox Film Corporation for its Invaluable 
aid and co-operation. 

Credit Is due Marine Gunner John F. Leopold, 
USMCR., for many of the photographs, and to 
Corp. Wllford B. Saylor, USMCR., for the cartoons 
and a large number of the drawings . 



Printed by the Twentieth Century-Fox Film 
Corporation Printing Department under the 
supervision of Harold J. Gordon. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Paragraph Page 
SECTION I. GENERAL. 

Purpose 1 . 

Scope 2 . 

Perfect Camouflage 3. 

Camoufleur 4 . 

Psychology and Camouflage 5. 

Comparisons 6. 

Developments . 7 . 

Personal Camouflage 8. 

Strategic Camouflage . 9. 2 

Conclusions 10. 2 

II. THE AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH. 2 

Interpreter vs. Camoufleur 11. 2 

III. TERMS AND DEFINITION. 3. 

Camouflage Discipline 12. 3 

Materials 13. 3 

Photographic Shade 14. 3 

Texture 15. 3 

• Form and Shadow 16. 3 

Terrain Features & Terrain Pattern. 17. 3 

Dummy 18.. 3 

IIV, CAMOUFLAGE DISCIPLINE. 4 

Discipline.. 19. 4 

Material 2C . 4 

V. PERSONAL CONCEALMENT. 4 

Hands and Face 21. 4 

Helmet and Pack 22. 4 

Sniper Suits 23. 6 

VI. THE SPIDER TRAP. 6 

The Spider Trap 24. 6 

Construction 25. 7 

VII. NETS. 7 

Purpose Of Nets 26. 7 

Flat Top Nets 27. 8. 

Draped Nets (Garnished) 28. 10 

Vlzlnets 29. 10 

Chicken Wire 30. 10 

Colors of Nets 31. 10 

Painting or Dyeing 32. 10 

Folding of Fish Nets 33. 10 

VIII. MAKING AND REPAIR OF FISH NETS. 11 

Materials 34. 11 

Making Nets 35. 11 

Mending Nets 36. 14 

IX. CAMOUFLAGING MOTOR VEHICLES. 16 

The Problem 37. 16 

Marine Corps Truck 38. 16 

Marine Corps Net 39. 16 

Technique of Camouflaging Trucks... 40. 17 

Use of Fish Net 41. 18 

Emergency Painting In Field 42. 18 

X. PAINTS. 18 

Paint 43. 18 

Use of Paint 44. 18 

Mixing 45. 18 

Color Chart 46. 19 



Paragraph 
SECTION XI . DYES. 

Aniline Dyes 47. 

Dyes vs. Paint In Camouflage 48. 

Comparison 49. 

Permanency 50. 

Covering Values... 51. 

Types 52. 

Toxicity 53. 

Conclusion 54. 

XII. BREAKAWAY HOUSES. 

Purpose 55. 

Construction 56. 

Six Sided House 57. 

Measurements.. 58. 

XIII . PLASTER AND MUD. 

Plaster "Rock" for Concealment 59. 

Entrance 60. 

Examples 61. 

Stumps and Trees 62. 

Uses 63. 

Mud Substitute 64. 

XIV. MODEL. 

Definition 65. 

Purpose 66. 

Scope 67. 

Examples.. „ 68. 

XV. CAMOUFLAGE DO'S AND DON'TS. 

Camouflage Do f s ......... . 69. 

Camouflage Don'ts 70. 



Page 
19 . 
19 . 
19. 
19. 
19 . 
19 . 
19. 
19 . 
19 . 
19 . 

19 . 
20- 

20 . 
20. 

21 . 

21 . 

22 . 
22. 
22. 
22. 
22 . 
26 . 
26 . 
26 . 
26 . 
26 . 
27. 
27. 
28. 



************ 



SECTION I 



II 



III. 



IV 



SUPPLEMENT 
POLYNESIAN NATIVE CRAFTS 

Paragraph 
GENERAL. 

Purpose of Scope.. l . 

Reference 2. 

Recognition of Materials 3. 

DYES . 

General Remarks .4, 

Colors and Methods 5. 

Brown ( 1 . 

Red and Orange (2. 

Yellow ( 3 # 

Blue (4, 

Green (5. 

Purple (5. 

Black; ( 7 . 

White ( 8 . 

PASTE, GLUES AND BRUSHES. 

Pastes and Glues 6. 

Brushes 7 . 

ROPES AND CORDS. 

The Material 9. 

Plaiting 9. 

Twisting Cords and Lines 10. 

Braiding Cords and Lines 11. 

Ropes 12. 

Nets 13. 



Page 



CAMOUFLAGE 



FIELD TRAINING MANUAL 
SECOND MARINE DIVISION 



SECTION I 
GENERAL 

1. PURPOSE . -Th Is manual has been compiled 
for the purpose of Instructing Marine Corps 
personnel In camouflage problems, and with 
particular reference to the role played by 
the Marine In modern warfare. 

2. SCOPE. -The manual is not to be considered 
In any way final or complete. Its flexi- 
bility is Indicated by the fact that It is 
Issued in loose-leaf form. It is the in- 
tention to incorporate new methods and ideas 
as occasion demands, and to delete or change 
any material that may become obsolete or is 
in ne ed of revis 1 on . 

3. PERFECT CAMOUFLAGE. -In theory, perfection 
would be reached in deception, if it were 
possible to manoeuver troops and transports, 
ships and planes, tanks, guns and equipment 
over large or small areas of sea and land 
with complete invisibility. It would. be 
even greater perfection if these forces, 
still invisible, contacted the enemy and 
destroyed him. Inasmuch as this is obviously 
an impossibility, it is none the less logical 
to direct our efforts towards taking what 
steps we can in this direction, by any means 
at our disposal, as long as it does not impair 
freedom of action or mobility. 

4. THE CAMOUFLEUR .-Camouflage lends itself 
to experiment, and to improvement by trial 
and error. The problem of camouflage appeals 
to the imagination and, by an imaginative 
application to the task, on the part of the 
camoufleur, the science will be developed. 
A good camoufleur usually has a tough road 
to travel. He must expect, on numerous 
occasions, to be treated as some sort of 
harmless lunatic by his friends. He must 
expect, more often than not and probably 
for very good reason, that cold water will 
be poured on many of his pet schemes and 
Ideas, and that they will be labelled fan- 
tastic and impracticable. On the other hand, 
he must remember that one original brilliantly 
conceived and executed camouflage scheme 
will be worth ninety-nine failures, for then 
he might well enjoy the satisfaction of 
having been a contributing factor to the 
saving of many lives, or find himself in 
the enviable position of having played an 
Important and significant part in the winning 
of a battle. A reputation for lunacy would 
be very worthwhile under these circumstances. 

5. PSYCHOLOGY AND CAMOUFLAGE .-( a ) Camouflage 
can go far beyond the extent of painting a 
house to simulate a hill, or the successful 
making, garnishing, and installation of a 
flat top . 

(b) The Japanese soldier professes to 
be unafraid of death. To die for his Emperor 
or for his country Is, to him, a sure and 
infallible method of procuring an irrevocable 
first-class ticket to heaven. He must 
therefore, in reverse ratio, have a deadly 
and horrible fear of going to hell. He is 
mortally afraid of fire, earthquakes, and 
the supernatural. Camouflage, and its twin 
brother, deception, should have much to do 
In playing upon the enemy's fears and super- 
stitions. It was not entirely an Idle Jest 
that caused the Flying Tigers In Burma to 
paint the noses of their planes to resemble 
the grotesque Images of man-eating tiger 
sharks and dragons. 

(c) It is a fact, and it may sound far- 
fetched but, when tanks were used by the 
British for the first time in history at 
the battle of the Somme in 1916, the Germans 



were so paralyzed with fear at the sight 
of them that they threw down their weapons 
and ran. 

6. COMPARISONS . -(a ) Camouflage Is not a new 
art, but it has been sadly neglected. History 
and mythology abound with examples of how 
battles have been fought, and won, by Its 
use. The difference between the manner of 
the Ancient G,reeks In getting their men 
within the walls of Troy, concealed In a 
wooden horse, and the modern counterpart, 
the demolition squad and paramarine, Is 
mainly one of method and equipment. 

(b) Shakespeare, in the Seventeenth 
Century, wrote of how MacDuff stormed the 
Castle of Dunsinane, his troops disguised 
with boughs cut from the trees of Birnan 
Wood. Small difference between that, and 
the manner of the Japs on the Malay Peninsula 
in 1942. 

(c) Since the flurry of interest, ex- 
periment, and some wholesale practice in 
a type of camouflage applicable to the trench 
warfare tactics of World War I, little has 
been accomplished In advancing the science. 

7. DEVELOPMENTS . -While camouflage in all 
Its phases becomes increasingly Important 
as the science of aerial reconnaissance and 
photography develops, It is evident that 
two types above all others are going to 
play a major role In modern combat. These 
are personal and strategic camouflage. 

8. PERSONAL CAMOUFLAGE .- Bo th the Germans 
and the Japanese practice the art of personal 
camouflage with considerable skill. The 
initial success of the Japanese campaign 
in the Western Pacific was due In part to 
its employment on a large scale. They also 
used to their advantage the very Jungles 
that were considered impassable barriers 
to troops and equipment. The Japs became 
a part of those Jungles, exhibiting surprising 
and totally unexpected skill In cutting 
through them. For more than one reason 
they had been dubbed "monkey-men" by the 
Chinese. Their ability to blend with their 
natural surroundings, by employing various 
disguises, permitted them to pass undetected 
througn the defender's lines and to success- 
fully outflank, or take them by surprise 
from the rear. In these operations they 
practiced the art of personal camouflage 
with overwhelming success. 




CAMOUFLAGE 



FIELD TRAINING MANUAL 
SECOND MARINE DIVISION 



9. STRATEGIC CAMOUFLAGE .-( a ) The following 
example of strategic camouflage Is given 
to illustrate the extent to which this type 
of operation can be carried. 

(b) Whether by accident or design, the 
Germans, in building the Siegfried Line, 
were responsible for the greatest and most 
successful deceptive camouflage operation 
in h Is t ory . 

(c) When, during the winter of 1939- 
1940, it was reported by the French that 
sections of the Line were inundated, that 
concrete Installations were crumbling due 
to exposure and inferior material; when It 
was observed that pillbox e's were easily 
blown up, and over, when coming under 
artillery fire; then It is not difficult 
to imagine the concern that the German High 
Command might have suffered in supposing 
that the true purpose of the Line had been 
discovered by the enemy. 

(d) The deception, if deception it was, 
of building opposing fortifications to the 
Maglnot Line, with the Intention of deceiving 
the French into believing that the challenge 
had been accepted to wage the War In the 
style and manner of the trench warfare of 
1914-1918, was a stroke of genius and an 
example of masterly strategy. Subsequent 
events proved that the Germans had no such 
intentions, and the fact was not fully 
appreciated even after the full scale dress 
rehearsal of a new order In warfare exhibited 
in the invasion of Poland. 

(e) It is possible that the Siegfried 
Line was intended to serve no other purpose 
than to deceive the enemy 
intentions, and to perhaps 
flank of the German Army 
through the Low Countries 



as to strategic 
protect the left 
In their thrust 



10. CONCLUSION. -Give then a little thought 
to camouflage. Consider the camoufleur a 
lunatic If you will, but remember It Is 
courage, daring, imagination, initiative 
and, last but not least, deception, that 
wins wars. Camouflage embraces all. A 
war may be won by all, or one of these. 




^ „T »<A*l Tr,A(.H$ TO 



SECTION II 

THE AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH 

11. INTERPRETER VS. CAMOUFLEUR .-( a ) We know 
that much can be done by the use of camouflage 
to escape detection by direct observation. 
In other words, it Is rather easy to fool 
the eye of the observer, particularly under 
combat conditions. The problem of fooling 
the aerial photograph Interpreter, however, 
is almost Impossible unless the camouflage 
Job is an exceptional one and the discipline 
Is perfect. 



(b) When compared with the problems 
confronting the camoufleur, the air photo 
interpreter has every advantage. In addition 
to his own skill, he can obtain the help of 
specialists in artillery, tank tactics, 
machine guns, etc. to advise him where to 
look for these Installations and verify his 
findings. The chance of error in photo 
Interpretation Is further reduced by comparing 
the reports of several Interpreters working 
independently on the same problem. 

(c) Prior to, during, and after combat 
operations, the movement of men and equipment 
Is difficult to conceal. The photograph 
Interpreter, studying reconnaissance photo- 
graphs made under combat conditions, looks 
for and usually finds evidence of relaxing 
of camouflage discipline, In most cases in 
the form of unnecessary foot trails, vehicles' 
tracks, or as carelessness In leaving equip- 
ment exposed. If reconnaissance photographs 
are taken under such conditions, the inter- 
preter can, by logical deductions, locate 
camouflaged positions which might otherwise 
go unnoticed. 

(d) In direct observation from the air, 
the ability of the human eyes to perceive 
third dimension is limited because of the 
small distance between the eyes when compared 
with the altitude of the plane. The photo- 
graph interpreter, however, has the oppor- 
tunity of viewing with a stereoscope, photo- 
graphs taken at greater intervals with the 
result that all terrain features will be 
exaggerated in height. A flat top garnished 
net unnoticed by direct vision, would stand 
out in full relief when seen through a 

S t6I*S OSC D6 

(e) Recent developments In reconnaissance 
technique such as fast, low flying pursuit 
ships equipped with automatic cameras which 
can be used to obtain additional photographs 
of suspected areas, add to the advantage 
of the Interpreter and make the Job of the 
camoufleur even more difficult. 

(f) In general, the problem of actually 
concealing anything from the photograph 
interpreter is becoming increasingly more 
difficult. Under these conditions, the 
best plan seems to be the intelligent use 
of dummy installations as decoys to divert 
the attention of the Interpreter from the 
camouflage position. 




^tffrffl wg ^-. •- 



2. 



CAMOUFLAGE 



FIELD TRAINING MANUAL 
SECOND MARINE DIVISION 



SECTION III 
TERMS AND DEFINITIONS 

12. CAMOUFLAGE D ISC I PLINE . -The practice of 
keeping emplacements in condition by paint 
or renewal of foliage. The avoidance of 
making tracks. The application of common 
sense with regard to the construction of 
any emplacement or position, and the proper 
dispersal of material. 

13. MATER IAL • -Any th lng used to form the 
covering or concealment of position or vehicle 
(paint, nets, garnlshings, garlands, lumber, 
etc . ) . 

14. PHOTOGRAPHIC SHADE. -The relative amount 
of light reflected from surfaces of varying 
colors or textures. 







LIGrlT 



15. TEXTURE. -(a) The element which causes 
the illusion of shadows in aerial photographs. 
A flat surface lacks texture. Therefore, 
regardless of color, it will photograph 
very light gray or white. A field of long 
grass or wheat photographs a light gray and 
the parts which have been trampled by troops 
or run down by trucks show up clearly as 
white. A forest or brushy terrain photographs 
dark gray and black because of the denser 
shadows. Therefore if trees or brush are 
removed from the area, it will photograph 
light gray or white whereas it should show 
up t ota l ly dark. 

(b) To clarify this point a bit more, 
consider texture as a lawn; all grass blades 
stand straight up when undisturbed. Now, 
drive a truck over it, or walk over it. 
Then, look back. You will readily observe 
the resultant tracks left by you and/or the 
truck. The color has not changed, but the 
tex ture has . ( F lg . 1 ) 

16. FORM AND SHADOW. -(a) Everything made 
by man has a definite regular form. Where 
in nature will you find anything formed 
like a tank, a recon-car, or a truck? Except 
in very rare Instances, nature does not 
create regularity in forms. 

(b) Regular forms cast regular shadows. 
A photograph Is a reproduction on film of 
billions of small shadows. A regular shadow 
surrounded by irregular shadows and standing 
out from them will be conspicuous. The thing 
to do Is to break up the shadow and when 
doing so, blend the building Into the sur- 
rounding terrain. If this is skillfully 
done, the camera will be fooled. 



17. TERRAIN FEATURES AND TERRAIN PATTERNS. - 
Outstanding landmarks, or characteristics, 
in any given area. Mountains are terrain 
features; so are the eucalyptus groves near- 
by; and as well, canyons and roads. Taken 
all together they form terrain patterns. 
Example: Coastal Southern California has 
an eroded, sub-mountainous, bushy terrain 
pattern . 



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t 






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v>j>^ ,__^ 



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18. DUMMY. -(a) A dummy is an artificially 
constructed form simulating a military work 
or object, but serving no other purpose than 
to deceive the enemy as to the position or 
existence of a real military object, 
(b) Dummies should be of simple con- 
struction without too much attention to 
detail. The outline Is all that Is necessary. 
(Figs. 2, 3) 



PRINCIPLE OF DUMMIES 



A DUMMY NEEDS ONLY TO CAST THE SAME 
SHADOW AS THE ACTUAL OBJECT CASTS. 



SUNLIGHY 





HERE IS A HOUSE HERE THE SMAOOW 



HERE *OU SEE A PLANE HERE JUST THE SHADOW 





prRflMiO^ rt ftt 



3 INCH A A GUN 



Fig. 2 



CAMOUFLAGE 



FIELD TRAINING MANUAL 
SECOND MARINE DIVISION 



example : 
cover of 




A 



Fig. 3 



SECTION IV 
CAMOUFLAGE DISCIPLINE 



19. 

has 



DISCIPLINE .- (a ) Camouflage disci 
two very Important objectives: 

(1) To prevent any change 1 
appearance of the terrain. For exa 
Making paths or tracks, cutting tre 
sod, or leaving any foreign objects ex 
In the vicinity of the position. 

(2) The maintenance of camou 
material. For example: Repairing It 
damaged, and keeping It up to da 
changing Its appearance or color as 
of the terrain changes with the sea 

(b) Camouflage material 
placed tha t : 

(1) It does not have a 
or cast either a regular or 
shad ow . 

(2) It conceals the form 
of the object camouflaged. 

(c) When using natural material to 
a position, obtain the natural coverl 
a manner that will not disturb the exl 
terrain pattern. 



should 

r egu lar 

we l l-d e 



pi lne 

n the 
mple : 
es or 
posed 

f lage 
when 

te by 
that 

s ons . 

be so 

f orm 
fined 



and shadow 



c over 
ng In 
sting 



(b) Use natural material. For 
Brush, limbs, reeds, palm fronds, 
tre es , etc. 

(c) Natural material and cover are always 
superior to artificial material or effort. 

(d) Some types of foliage retain their 
shape and color for a longer period after 
being cut If dipped In ocean water. This 
treatment will not cause the foliage to wilt 
faster . 



"MWINC, | Nro i. 
POSITION 




SECTION V 

PERSONAL CONCEALMENT 

21. HANDS AND FACE. -(a) Light surface 
a give-away In any surroundings. They re 
light, thus foiling concealment. 

(b) Remedy: Smear with mud, dlr 
face-paint, and use head net and 



wra pp lngs . 

(c) The natural 
of the face should 
should correspond 
this 
used 



shine and pattern ou 

be br oken up . The 

to the background. 

purpose greasepaint and makeup c 

If available. For Instance, 1 



Jungle use green makeup for hands and 
streaked with a darker color to ca 
contrast and mock shadow pattern. 



s are 
fleet 

t , or 
hand 

tllne 

color 
For 
an be 
n the 
face, 
use a 





20. MATERIAL . -(a ) Materials chosen should: 

(1) Match the surrounding terrain In 
color and texture. 

(2) Be easy to maintain, considering 
the length of time the position will be 
occupied . 



>0NT D6JW& *N 



22. HELMET AND PACK. -(a) The basic 
of the helmet Is fine, but the outll 
non-concealing. It has been found tha 
new type bucket-helmet Is not only b 
for head protection, but molds Into a 
bulky form when dealing with head conceal 

(b) Remedy: Break up the regular pa 
and gleam of the helmet, and blend the 
and shoulders Into a less human form 
a net or brush . 

(c) The_head_net Is made of light 
net twlne~~of approximately 1" mesh, 
net should be approximately 4' x 5 
long enough to drape over the helmet, 
the back over the pack, and over the 
In front. The two rear corners c 
fastened In front of the body by pi 
a mesh section over a button. The two 
corners are then tucked Inside the fas 
rear section. When garnished with 
or garlands, the human form is broke 



color 

ne Is 

t the 

e tter 

less 

men t . 

ttern 

head 

with 

f lsh- 
Thls 
1 , or 
d own 
ches t 
an be 
ac lng 
front 
ten ed 
brush 
n up. 



CAMOUFLAGE 



FIELD TRAINING MANUAL 
SECOND MARINE DIVISION 




Head Net and Sniper's Suit. 




sis^^ 









Use of Cover 



CAMOUFLAGE 



FIELD TRAINING MANUAL 
SECOND MARINE DIVISION 



(d) Before donning the net and helmet, 
the net should be laid out flat. Then the 
foliage should be placed at the spot where 
the helmet meets the net. When this foliage 
Is put In thick enough to break up the helmet 
and body outline, the net should be placed 
on the helmet and the foliage placed in an 
irregular pattern. It is advisable to use 
some of the foliage around the head and 
shoulders, blending It into the head-piece. 
The remainder of the net should be strung 
with small garlands or brush, thinned out 
towards the edges. 

(e) In doing this be sure that the net 
Is over the helmet so that the cord will 
be tight enough to hold the foliage. 

23. SNIPER SUITS. -(a) The two-piece dungaree 
suit now in use has been augmented by 
patterns of paints. The basic color of 
the suit is light green spotted with a 
darker green, plus light and dark brown 
spots. This tends towards a heavy shadow 
effect; and results in breaking up the outline 
of -the body and at the same time blending 
in very well with the surrounding terrain 
--grass, brush, woods, etc. 

(b) One side of the suit is of a sandy 
texture--two shades darker brown--whlch 
corresponds to the light-reflecting shades 
so prevalent on deserts and along beaches. 

(c) The darker shades of brown (on the 
light, sandy side of the suit) corresponds 
to the lumpy loam and small tufts of grass 
usually found on sandy stretches of country. 
This side of the suit is quite effective 
In light, grassy terrains — straw or dead 
grass fields. 

(d) The trousers of the sniper suit are 
long and baggy in order to cover the leggings 
and shoes, and to break the regularity of 
leg outline. Do not tie or secure the bottom 
around the ankle . 

One method for making sniper suits: 
Take an old dungaree suit and paint-spray 
it with desired design and colors. 

(e) If the requirement Is for temporary 
use, water paints are suitable. They can 
be washed or brushed off easily when It is 
desired to change the pattern, but will 
stand several days of rain before becoming 
conspicuous . 



(f) Use colors that 
when applying paint, 
blended as to eliminate 
shades. A spray-gun Is 

(g) Three men, with 



match the surroundings 

Colors should be so 

telltale lines between 

best for this purpose. 

spray guns containing 



different colors, should be aDle to camouflage 
sixty suits in about two hours 



V 



V 



i 



SECTION VI 

THE SPIDER TRAP 

24. THE SPIDER TRAP. -(a) Every Marine Is 
familiar with the "fox hole". Its use, 
primarily, Is for protection during a rapid 
advance, rather than concealment. The spider 
trap on the other hand Is used specifically 
for concealment. It Is a means of concealing 
a man or group of men from the enemy's view. 
A hole Is dug in the ground deep enough for 
a man to stand nearly upright. (Fig. 4) it 
is covered by a trapdoor made of a framework 
over which grass or brush resembling the 
immediate terrain is placed. If possible 
it should not arouse suspicion by unusual 
firmness or springiness to the feet. (Figs. 
5,6) 




Fig. 5 




Fig. 6 





\ 




(b) The best place for spider traps is 
along both sides of a road. One man or 
several platoons of men can be concealed 
by this method. When the enemy tanks or 
infantry are approaching, they are allowed 
to pass, and Immediately after, the men in 
the spider traps go into action. 






Fig. 4 








6 . 



CAMOUFLAGE 



FIELD TRAINING MANUAL 
SECOND MARINE DIVISION 



25. CONSTRUCTION .-(a ) The spider hole Is 
concealed by a cover made of crisscrossed 
twigs. (Fig. 7) It is this cover, or top, 
that Is the first step of construction. 
It should be large enough to cover the man's 
head and shoulders. 





Fig. 9 



Fig. 7 



(b) The position Is selected and the hole 
dug. The hole Is Just large enough to 
accommodate the body. It may be widened 
as it gets deeper. Not more than one man 
is required to dig the spider-hole. However, 
two men working together will more expedi- 
tiously dig two spider holes than If each 
digs Individually on separate ones. This, 
for the reason that after a depth of two 
or three feet, digging becomes quite difficult 
due to the limited width of the hole. 

(c) The top layer of soil removed should 
be carefully placed on the frame In the same 
position It previously held on the surrounding 
terrain. (Fig. 8) Care must be exercised 
In removing this top layer of soll--lt 
should be thick enough to Insure permanent 
preservation of the grass. 




Fig. 8 



(d) The soil should be placed on a poncho, 
raincoat, or burlap. (Fig. 9) When enough 
dirt to be carried away has been dug out, 
a disposal spot should be carefully selected. 
Whenever possible the spider hole should 
be dug alongside a path or road; thus tracks 
will not be discernible. 




SECTION VT T 

NETS 

26. PURPOSE OF NETS. -The purpose of garnished 
nets is to break up and diffuse the pattern 
of a position or an object so that it will 
blend in with Its surroundings. (Fig. 11) 
A net as such Is the element that supports 
the material used for concealment. A net 
by Itself Is useless. The effect of a 
garnished net Is much the same as a curtain 
on a window. Those behind It or In the 
house can see out, but the outsiders cannot 
see In. A garnished net, If It matches 
the color and the light-reflecting surfaces 
beneath it, will blend so that It will not 
show conspicuously In an aerial photograph. 
(For article on head nets see Section V) 



:amouflage 



FIELD TRAINING MANUAL 
SECOND MARINE DIVISION 



M ■ 







Fig. 10 








EXTENDING IRREGULARITIES WITH GARLANDS 

DETA IL OF GARLANDS 
USE FRICTION TAPE OR KINK 



[» ABOUT e ,L *| 

b 






WIRE TO PREVENT SL IPP I NG 



Fig. 12 



PLAN 

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ENOS 
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0* G N " ^ W ° VEN ' N " 



:^&^< 



DETAIL 



87. FLAT TOP NETS. -(a) These, If 
properly, will blend Into the terrain pa 
to the point where a position so cone 
will not be noticeable to the eye or t 
camera . ( P lgs .12,13) 

(b) Care must be taken to keep the 
tops Hat, otherwise they will betra 
presence of activity. The frame fo 
net should be of the simplest ty 
construction. (Figs. 14, 15) 

(c) Any means of stretching the n 
make It tight Is acceptable. It must 
however, "bunch" around the edges 
dough around pies. If brush or tree 
available, they may be advantage 
substituted for part or all of the s 
and poles . 



used 
ttern 
ealed 
o the 

flat 
y the 
r the 
pe of 

e t to 
no t , 
like 
s are 
ous ly 
takes 



CAMOUFLAGE 



FIELD TRAINING MANUAL 
SECOND MARINE DIVISION 



CHICKEN-WIRE FLAT-TOP GARNISHED WITH NATURAL FOLIAGE 



2- 



CHICKEN-WIRE FLAT-TOP IS ERECTED 
LEAVING APPROXIMATELY 6" OF 
SPACE BETWEEN STRIPS OF CHICKEN- 
WIRE. ANOTHER SURFACE OF CHICKEN 
WIRE IS STRETCHED ON TOP OF 
FIRST- THE TWO BEING SEPARATED 
BY SPREADERS OF WOOD - 15 
LONG. 




XW"* 



BETWEEN THE TWO LAYERS OF CHICKEN-WIRE 
SMALL BRANCHES ARE PLACED IN AN UPRIGHT 
POSITION, BEING HELD IN PLACE BY THE LAYERS 
OF CHICKEN-WIRE. 

TO MAINTAIN COLOR AND NATURALNESS, FOLIAGE 
MUST EITHER BE CHANGED OFTEN OR PAINTED 
WITH CAMOUFLAGE PAINT MATCHING ITS 
ORIGINAL COLOR. 



x«i 



WW' 




Fig. 13 




Fig. 14 



(d) The frame for a 36' x 44' net should 
be at least 40' x 48' In order that the net 
may be laid on top of the wire web and 
lashed to the outer wires. 

(e) In garnishing nets or chicken wire 
the strips of fabric (or brushy material, 
If used) should be woven or placed closest 
together over the object to be concealed, 
gradually thinning out towards the edges. 



Garnishing should be irregular In outline. 
The thickly woven central portion serves 
to conceal what may be under It, and the 
thinned edges cast a faint, Indeterminate 
shadow which, merging Into the Inequalities 
of the terrain, renders It unnotlceable in 
aerial photographs. Since the thinned edges 
allow objects under them to show, the cover 
must be larger than the object over which 
It Is placed. 






IA 




Fig. 15 



CAMOUFLAGE 



FIELD TRAINING MANUAL 
SECOND MARINE DIVISION 




■1*5 
■i& 



&*"* 



ȣ> 



Fig. 16 



28. DRAPE NETS ( GARN I SHED ) . -The ir purpose 
is to break up the outline, shape, shadow 
and color of any object or position. (Figs. 
16,17) 



32. PAINTING OR DYEING. -(a) Paint or dye 
can be applied by : 

(1) Paint brush, which requires 
excessive labor. 

(2) Spray gun, which is especially 
useful for correcting colors in the field. 

(3) Dipping in a vat of paint, which 
is the quickest method, but requires much 
more paint and thereby increases the weight 
of the finished product materially. 

(b) Garnishing can be painted: 

(1) Before weaving, while In the form 
of large pieces (bolts or rolls) or of strips 
ready for use. Painting before weaving Is 
economical of paint but makes the material 
stiff and hence slightly harder to weave. 
Large pieces are easier to paint than strips, 
but when strips are cut therefrom their 
edges are unpalnted which changes the color 
of a garnished net appreciably. This is 
unimportant where final matching of colors 
Is d one In the field. 

(2) After being woven into the net. 
This method is particularly useful when the 
garnished nets are painted by dipping. Both 
upper and under sides of the net must be 
pa in ted . 




Fig. 17 



29. V IZ INETS . -Are close weave ungarnlshed 
nets, generally dyed or painted to correspond 
to the existing terrain. Their purpose Is 
the same as drapes. 

30. CHICKEN WIRE. -If available, Is more 
permanent than fabric netting and can be 
used In the same manner. 

31. COLORS OF NETS. -(a) Garnishing for nets 
must be colored to fit the locality where 
the net Is used. In a stable situation, 
nets may be furnished to the using units 
already garnished and colored to fit the 
particular sites. In mobile situations, 
garnishing or garnished nets may be furnished 
in a neutral color but must be finally 
colored on the site. In any case, coloring 
must be checked by air observation to prove 
Its effectiveness. Nets colored in one 
solid color throughout generally give as 
good results as nets with mottled patterns 
of several colors and are easier to prepare. 

(b) Garnishing may be colored either by 
pa in t or dye . 



USE OF NETS TO HIDE PATHS AND ROADS 



NETS ARE STRUNG IRREGULARLY 
AND ARE USED TO AUGMENT 
NATURAL COVER. 



HGI. 5K.WS SUGGESTED POSITION 
ANC PJIETHOD OF GAH'JiSHI.NG NETS 

FIG. 2. SHOWS GARNISHED NETS AS 
THE* APPEAR WHEN ERECTED, 
BLENDING WITH THE TREE FOLIAGE. 





GOOD CAMOUFLAGE DISCIPI iNE 



NEER b'. 



Fig. 18 



33. FOLDINO OF FISH NETS. -When not in use, 
fish nets should be folded carefully in such 
a way that they can be unfolded for use 
without confusion. (Fig. 19) 



10 



CAMOUFLAGE 



LINES OF FGLOS 



i 



M 



CENTER FOi 



J 



do 



I 

TOP OFlNETUP 



LONG OIRECTION FOR 
OBLONG NET 

I I 






FIELD TRAINING MANUAL 
SECOND MARINE DIVISION 



This prevents the needle from unwinding when 
dropped but permits the user to unwind one 
loop at a time, as needed, by a slight pull 
towards the point of the needle. 

(e) A drawing of a typical commercial 
needle is shown In figure 20. 




Fig. 20 



C. 



CENTER FOLO 



ROLL LOOSELY 



INITIAL FOLDS 





s 




FINAL FOLO 



PROCEDURE 

I SPREAD FLAT.(A.)AND FOLD TOWARDS CENTER, (B. ANO C^ 

TO FORM LONG FOLDED STRIP ( 0. ) 
2 ROLL LOOSELY FROM BOTH ENDS, (E.) ANO FOLO 



ROLLS TOGETHER. ( F. ) 



Fig. 19 



35. MAKING NETS. -(a) Introduction. It Is 
not anticipated that troops will make any 
large amount of nets for their own use since 
ready-made nets of more uniform weave are 
available through the usual Engineer Supply 
ph Rn n fi 1 s 

(b) However, practice in making portions 
of nets is essential if one is to develop 
the manual skill required to make a satis- 
f ac t ory repair. 

(c) Special nets or extensions to standard 
nets may also be required to meet unusual 
fie id c ond it i ons . 

(d) fllllng_the_Needle . The needle Is 
filled by clove-hitching the end of the 
twine around the central spine, and leading 
It up the other side. Then bend the spine 
until its point projects Just enough to 
permit the twine to be looped over the spine. 
The twine is then led back through the 
groove at the base of the needle to the 
starting side where the process Is repeated. 
(Fig. 21) 




SECTION VIII 

MAKING AND REPAIR OF FISH NETS* 

34. MATERIALS. -(a ) Twine. The twine used 
In camouflage fish nets is commercially 
known as Number 18 (meaning 18 thread) 
medium laid seine twine. The commercial 
unit is the pound containing approximately 
1000 feet. 

(b) Due to the difficulty of tying knots 
in tarred twine or of tarring completed 
repairs In the field, twine should be treated 
with copper oleate preservative when the 
maximum durability is required. Normally, 
untreated twine is satisfactory for repairing 
damaged nets because the patch will probably 
be as durable as the older net. 

(c) Ne tt lng.Needles . Netting needles 
are essential for making nets because the 
large amount of twine needed for the task 
can be handled efficiently only by 
a needle. Needles are desirable 
essential for making repairs 
a relatively short length of 
in any one re pair . ,,<,„,„ 

(d) If commercial needles are not available 
effective substitutes may be made of any 
thin hard wood. A convenient size is 6±" 
to 8" long, 5/8" to 7/8" wide and approxi- 
mately 1/8" thick. In making needles, the 
central spine about which the twine is 
looped should be so long that It must be 
pushed to one side or the other to ; 
the loop of twine to pass 



but not 
because only 
twine Is used 



over its end 



Reprint of pamphlet prepared by 8^th 
Engineer Battalion ( C amouf lag e ) ( Arny ) 



(e) The needle should be filled until 
the twine is approximately 1/4" from the 
end of the spine . Leave about twenty-four 
inches of twine not wound on the needle. 

(f) The_Loo2. Make a bowline In the free 
end of the twine attached to the needle. 
The length of the loop when stretched so 
that the sides come together should be the 
same as the distance desired between 
diagonally opposite knots of a mesh of the 
net when stretched so that the sides come 
together. This dimension is technically 
called the "mesh" and a standard camouflage 
net has a four inch mesh (In other words 
the small squares are two Inches on a side). 
To gain facility in Judging this size by 
eye, all training should be conducted with 
a 4 " mesh . 

(g) lhe_Chaln. The next step is to weave 
a "chain" of meshes equal in length to one 
edge of the net. (The body of the net is 
then made by weaving onto the side of the 
chain.) To make the chain, hook the loop 
lust formed over a convenient nail or tie 
it up with a loop of twine. Turn the loop 
so that the knot is in the middle of the 
left-hand side. Pass the filled needle up 
through the loop with the right hand, re- 
grasp the needle with the right hand and 
pull It down towards the right hip. Hook 
the left little finger In the new loop from 
behind. (So the loops might be grasped by 
the left hand.) See figure 22. Adjust the 
new loop to the same size as the first one 
by pulling with the needle or with the finger. 
The loops and twine should be stretched 
firmly toward the weaver at this stage. 



11 . 



CAMOUFLAGE 



FIELD TRAINING MANUAL 
SECOND MARINE DIVISION 




and with the left 
Is now completed 
figure 24. 



little finger. The mesh 
and should appear as in 



Fig. 22 
Weaving from Left to Right. 

Adjusting the Size of the Loop 

(h) When the s'.ze of the loop has been 
adjusted, grasp the twine where it passes 
through the first loop with the left thumb 
and forefinger as shown In figure 23. Note 
that the thumb is BEHIND the twine leading 
to the needle and that the thumb-nail grips 
the bottom of the old loop. Now throw a 
loop of twine up to the left front as shown 
in figure 23, with the running end leading 
from the top of the loop, Pass the point 
of the needle BEHIND the two sides of the 
first loop, IN FRONT of the twine leading 
down from the original bowline to the left 
little finger, and THROUGH the loop Just 
thrown up to the left front. The appearance 
should now be as shown in figure 23. 




Weaving from Left to Right. 

Making the Knot. 



(1) Regrasp the point end of the needle 
with the right hand and pull the knot tight 
by pulling the needle smartly down towards 
the right hip, at the same time keeping a 
firm hold with the left thumb and forefinger 




Weaving from Left to Right. 

The Completed Knot 



(j) Remove the first loop from the nail, 
turn It over and replace it so tnat the 
twine again leads from the middle of the 
left-hand side of the loop as shown in 
figure 25. 




Fig. 25 

Continuing the Chain 



12 



:amouflage 



FIELD TRAINING MANUAL 
SECOND MARINE DIVISION 



(k) Weave another mesh In the same manner 
as the first one, turn the chain over and 
continue until the number of meshes desired 
for one side of the net have been made. 

(1) After the first few meshe> have been 
woven It Is no longer necessary to remove 
the end loop from the nail and turn the whole 
chain over. The chain can be twisted until 
the twine leads off from the left side, a 
mesh woven, and a chain twisted back to 
weave the next mesh. 

(m) Note: if the net Is to be used to 
patch another net the exact number of meshes 
must be counted as explained In paragraph 
36 under "Patching". Otherwise It Is 
sufficiently close to allow 17" to 17i" of 
stretched chain per foot of length of the 
side. This Is the standard used In making 
the issue camouflage nets and should give 
a net which will be stretched tightly when 
pulled out. Figure 26 shows a chain with 
four meshes on its outer edge. A fifth 
mesh is shown in dotted lines. 




Fig. 26 
The Completed Chain. 
Shown Hung Up Ready to Weave the body of the Net. 
jint of Needle Indicates First Loop to be Used 
Dotted lines show position of end loop 
if total number of meshes is odd. 



(n) The chain Is now unhooked and spread 
out as shown in figure 26. The needle 
Indicates the first mesh that will be used 
in weaving back and forth across the net. 
The opposite row of meshes (strung on a 
rod) form the edge of 
meshes may be strung 
If the net is small, 
a nail. It is better 
so that the loops are 



the net. These edge 
on a rod or rope or , 
gathered together on 
to have the net hang 
free to slide together 
when one pulls at right angles to the bar 
because It is much easier to Judge the 
correct size of loop than when the net is 
spread out. Furthermore, the meshes will 
begin to close up anyway after five or six 
rows have been woven. 



(o) The hanging bar should be thrust 
through as shown in figure 27, so that all 
twine crosses the front of the bar in the 
same direction. This makes the net hang 
more e ven ly . 

(p) The_Bod£_of__the_Net . With the chain 
hung up as described above, the twine should 
lead off from the lower left hand knot. 
Pass the needle up through the mesh to the 
right of the knot. Hook the left little 
finger in the loop as shown In figure 27. 
Adjust the length of the loop so that the 
distance from the knot directly above the 
little finger to the bottom of the loop 
equals the total length of the mesh. (See 
dimension lines.) Complete the tie Just 
as was done in making the chain. See 
figures 23 , 24 . 

(q) Pick up the next loop to the right, 
tie into it and proceed across to the right 
hand edge of the net. 

(r) Note that if the chain contained an 
odd total number of meshes the last mesh 
on the right will be strung on the rod (see 
dotted lines in figure 26) and must be 
skipped in weaving the body of the net. 

(s) Now change the needle to the LEFT 
hand, pass the point up and to the front 
through the last mesh woven, hook the little 
finger of the right hand in the loop and 
adjust to length as shown in figure 28. 




Fig. 28 

Start of Second 
Row of Body. 
Weaving from Right to Left. 
Adjusting the Loop. 



(t) Throw a loop of twine up to the RIOHT 
front, pass the needle from LEFT to RIGHT 
behind the -mesh being tied into, in front 
of the loop hooked on the finger, and through 
the loop thrown up to the right as shown in 
figure 29. 




Fig. 27 

First Step in Weaving the Body of the Net. 




29 

of Second 

Body, 
from Right to Left. 

Making the Tie. 



13 



CAMOUFLAGE 



FIELD TRAINING MANUAL 
SECOND MARINE DIVISION 



(u) Pull the knot tight as shown In 
figure 30 and continue weaving from right 
to left In the same manner until the left 
hand edge of the net Is reached. (Note 
that the last mesh at the left top Is on 
the rod and must be skipped.) 



30 

Second 

Body. 

Right to Left. 

pletedTie. 




Into 


the 


with 


the 


ties 


are 


that 


the 


INTO 


THE 



(v) Change the needle back, to the right 
hand and work back from left to right as 
In the first row of the body. 

(w) Continue weaving back and forth until 
the desired length Is reached. This length 
Is determined In exactly the same manner 
as the length of the chain, by counting 
mesh If for a patch, or by measurement If 
for a complete new net. 

(x) genera^. Note that the ties must 
be made as described so that the twine will 
lead directly from one knot to the next 
without crossing the twine coming 
knot. If trouble Is experienced 
twine crossing Itself when the 
made as described, It Indicates 
knots are not being pulled tightly 
PROPER SHAPE. Probably the little finger 
is not holding the loop tightly enough as 
the knot Is pulled tight. 

(y) £ttaching_Bol t_Rop_es . To finish a 
complete new net ropes must be attached 
around Its edges. Pull one edge taut, 
allowing the rest of the net to lie loosely 
on the ground and measure the pulled edge 
to get the length of stretched netting. 
Allow 12" of rope for each 17^" of stretched 
netting. Repeat the process for each of 
the other three edges since a hand-made 
net will seldom be of uniform size. 

(z) It is best to use four lengths of 
rope knotted at the corners. To provide 
a ready means of adjustment as the net 
stretches with use, allow 10% more rope 
ou ts lde the knots . 

(zz) The ropes may be threaded through 
the edge meshes In the same manner as the 
rod used for holding the net while weaving. 
They may also be clove-hitched to tne net 
at each edge mesh by counting the meshes 
in the net and marking the rope with a 
sufficient number of equal spaces to acco- 
modate all the meshes. Use three hitches 
of seine twine at each mesh for a secure 
tie . 

36. MENDING NETS. -(a) Tr immln.g._ t he _Tea r . 
The first step in mending a torn or cut net 
Is to trim away the edges of the tear so 
that the work can progress continuously 
from start to finish without the necessity 
of frequently cutting and resuming the 
weaving . 



(b) The first requirement Is that 
end of the twine must start at a knot Jol 
THREE strands or from a tag end lea 
from such a knot. The weaving must 
end at a similar point. This is neces 
because only one end of the mending t 
is attached at the knots and there mus 
three unbroken strands of the original 
to give the required four strands radia 
from each kn ot . 

(c) The second requirement is that 
knots around the edges of the tear 
have TWO and only two unbroken strand 
the original net. 

(d) In trimming the tear, unneces 
tag ends are first cut off, then enough 
strands are cut out to satisfy the a 



the 
nlng 
ding 
also 
sary 
wine 
t be 

ne t 
ting 

the 

mus t 
s of 

sary 

more 
bove 




Cutting Twine 



requirements. Figure 31 shows the most 
convenient method of cutting twine, especially 
when only one end of the twine is fastened. 

(e) Figures 32, 33 and 34 show different 
typical tears before trimming, the same 
tears after trimming, and the sequence in 
which the tears are woven. 

(f) Weav lng_ the _Tear . If the mending 
starts at a knot where three strands Join, 
the end of the twine should be tied on as 
shown in figures 35, 36 and 37. 




Fig. 32 



14 



FIELD TRAINING MANUAL 
SECOND MARINE DIVISION 




Fig. 34 

Sequence of Mendmq Tears 




Fig. 35 

Starting Repair. 
The First Hitch. 



-15- 



Starting Repair. 
The Completed Hitch. 



(g) Note that trie end of the twine Is 
placed between two of the strands, the 
first hitch Is made around these two strands 
and the second hitch Is made around the 
middle strand only. The second hitch Is 
made this way to bind the end of the twine 
more securely without excessively distorting 
the shape of the mesh. 

(h) If the mending starts at a tag end, 
the end of the twine Is tied to the tag end 
with a square knot . 

(1) Similar ties are used In finishing 
the repair. The sequence of weaving depends 
upon the shape and position of the tear with 
respect to the weave of the net and must 
be determined for each Job. Figure 34 shows 
the sequences for the tears Illustrated. 
The most convenient method for finding the 
proper sequence and weaving the tear Is to 
spread the net out flat so that the meshes 
are square and thread the twine through the 
meshes (without tying It at the knots) 
until the proper sequence Is found by trial. 
The twine may then be cut and left In the 
net to guide the weaving. The guiding twine 
Is removed after the repair Is finished. 
With practice, one will become sufficiently 
expert to dispense with the use of the 
guiding twine. 

(J) In adjusting a loop care must be 
taken to note whether the loop forms one 
or two sides of a mesh and to adjust the 
size accord lng ly . 

(k) Use either the right-hand or the 
left-hand method of tying the knots, de- 
pending upon whether the twine goes from 
left to right or right to left when the 
repair meshes are nearest the weaver. 
(1) Qeneral. Note that on some complicated 
tears It wTi l not be possible to trim the 



16 



CAMOUFLAGE 



FIELD TRAINING MANUAL 
SECOND MARINE DIVISION 



tear so that It may be woven In a continuous 
sequence without cutting out an excessive 
amount of net. In such cases, it is better 
to trim less extensively and weave several 
sequences, beginning and ending at "three- 
strand -k.no ts " as described above. 

(m) Patching. When a net contains a 
large hole it is quickest and easiest to 
insert a patch cut from a scrap net or to 
weave a patch separately and then insert 
it in the hole . 

(n) The first step Is to lay the net out 
and pull the meshes square. Then cut the 
hole out to a roughly rectangular shape 
surrounded by knots Joining two strands. 




F.g. 38 

Hole Trimmed Out for Patch 

See figure 38 . Notice that a " tnree-strand - 
knot" is not used for starting or finishing 
the insertion of the patch. This is because 
the weaving starts and finishes at the same 
knot when inserting a patch rather than at 
different knots as in mending a tear. 
(o) A rectangular patch is now cut or 
woven with one less "two-strand-knot" on 
each side than on the corresponding side 
of the hole. See figure 39. 




(p) The patch is inserted in the net by 
weaving continuously around as shown In 
figure 40 . 




Fig. 40 

Completed Repair. 

SECTION IX 
CAMOUFLAGING MOTOR VEHICLES 

37. THE PROBLEM. -Conceal lng military vehicles 
presents an unusual problem. It Is unique 
in two ways: First, trucks change their 
locations frequently from one kind of 
surrounding to another. Second, vehicles 
present large and difficult type silhouettes. 
The first, as a general rule, makes It 
Impracticable to attempt to adapt the 
coloring of the vehicle to particular 
surroundings. The second, which is the 
more important, presents the following 
difficulty: For every foot that an object 
is above the ground, shadows of a length 
of three to six feet, depending on the 
time of day, result. (If the sun Is shining) 
Therefore, to avoid shadows completely, 
the camouflage material must slope upwards 
from the ground, and conversely, slope back 
to the ground in such a manner that the 
initial or final angle between the ground 
and the covering of the vehicle shall not 
exceed ten degrees. 

38. MARINE CORPS TRUCK. -The usual Marine 
Corps truck of 1£ tons, equipped with a 
cargo body and top, has a height of approxi- 
mately 9'3". Shadows ranging from 30' to 
60' on at least two sides will therefore 
result. To overcome this difficulty, 
experiments were conducted with vehicle 
ne ts . 



Fig. 39 

Patch Placed in Hole 



39. 

Marl 

The 

net 
s tru 

( 
two 
"f la 
indl 
of 1 
pole 
be u 



In which the 
a supporting 



MARINE CORPS NET. -(a) The standard 
ne Corps camouflage net Is 36 ' by 44'. 
net may be best used in two ways 

(1) As a "flat top", 
Is stretched flat over 
cture of wire and wood. 

( 2 ) As a drape, 
b) Due consideration was given to the 
methods. These are our findings. The 
t top" as camouflage material for 
vldual trucks Is Impractical because 
ts weight and bulk. However, using 
s of a length from 12' to 15', It may 
sed successfully to camouflage several 



16 



CAMOUFLAGE 



FIELD TRAINING MANUAL 
SECOND MARINE DIVISION 



trucks t oge ther . 
Individually, the 
has been found 



For camouflaging trucks 

fish net used as a drape 

to be the best method. 



40. TECHNIQUE OF CAMOUFLAGING TRUCKS. -(a) 
It has been proven In actual practice that 
It Is almost Impossible to conceal an object 
from an expert aerial photograph Interpreter. 
By the use of technical films, plus highly 
magnifying stereoscopic pairs, he Is generally 
able to distinguish between the natural and 
the artificial. Consequently, the color 
of the camouflage material used Is relatively 
unimportant Insofar as aerial photography 
Is concerned, provided however, that It Is 
lus ter less . 

(b) The difficulty of concealing trucks 
Is compensated for by the fact that even 
after the aerial photographer has taken his 
picture of a truck, and the photographic 
Interpreter has discovered Its existence 
and location, the bombardier must still see 
his target in order to destroy It. Conse- 
quently, every effort expended toward making 
a vehicle as Inconspicuous as possible by 
blending It with the surrounding terrain 
will prove invaluable because the possibility 
of the bombardier hitting his target is 
grea tly minimized. 

(c) Using this fact as our major premise, 
the following Instructions should be observed: 

(1) The driver should choose his 
position carefully, avoiding all skylines. 

(2). To get to his position, he must 
not drive across an open field in order to 
reach nearby woods. 

(3) If necessary to cross open land, 
he should go around the edge of the field. 

(4) Truck tracks are very conspicuous; 
they are as arrows leading to the target. 
If tracks exist, stay in them. They should 
never be broadened unless, of course, there 
is no alternative. 

(5) Upon reaching his position, the 
driver should make full use of natural 
cover. A spreading tree is worth truckloads 
of artificial material. 

(6) All conspicuous landmarks must 
be avoided, and ditches, ravines, creek 
beds, hedges, etc., fully utilized. 

(7) If a tree Is available, the driver 
should carefully consider the direction of 
the shade . 

(8) Always get under a tree on the 
shady side and move around with the shade. 
Granting this may mean considerable trouble, 
yet It is less difficult than dodging bullets. 

(9) If only a bush Is available, the 
vehicle should be parked on the sunny side 
of the bush, so that the shadow cast by the 
net and the vehicle will be absorbed by the 
irregular shadow of that bush. 

(10) Vehicles may be concealed In 
woods without leaves, because of the confused 
pattern of light and shade. But, they will 
be much more readily observed under these 
conditions on an overcast day than on a 
sunny day. This, for the reason that there 
will be no shadows to break up shapes and 
f orms . 

(d) When the location has been decided 
upon, the vehicle should be camouflaged In 
the following manner: 

(1) Park the truck as close to a tree 
trunk as possible. 

(2) Obtain twigs and branches and 
place them against all wheels In order to 
eliminate their familiar silhouette. 

(3) Roll down all windows. 
(4)Cover all exposed and non-removable 

glass (headlights and windshield) with dark 
material. If none Is available, draln-oll 
smeared on the glass, with dirt or sand 
thrown on top of it, will suffice to eliminate 
reflecting surfaces. 

(o) The rear-view mirrors on both 
sides of the truck must be turned down. 



Why spend time camouflaging a vehicle If 
this is neglected? A rear-view mirror is 
visible for a distance of ten miles on a 
sunny day. The tail-light too must not be 
f org otten . 

( 6 ) Additionally , brush thrown against 
the truck will aid in casting shadows and 
destroying silhouettes. 

(7) If sufficient natural materials 
are not available to effectively camouflage 
the vehicle, then the fish net should be 
used . 

(8) If the area chosen is to be occupied 
for any length of time as a truck park, 
every effort must be made to deceive the 
enemy. His attention should be distracted, 
and he should be led to believe that the 
area occupied Is harmless. This may be 
effected by drawing his attention to another 
area . 

(9) To increase the security of the 
position chosen, care should be taken to 
make sure that It is near no readily 
discernible landmark. 

(10) Tracks or roads leading to a 
truck park must never come to an abrupt 
terminus in the vicinity of that area. Road 
tracks and trails should be artificially 
continued past the position and toward other 
and more distant points. 

(11) Dummy tracks may be made with 
the use of wheelbarrows, wagons, brush 
harr ows , etc. 

(12) Sham roads and paths across a 
field may be made by means of light colored 
sand, dirt, or chalk. Similar effects may 
be "manufactured" by mowing high grass and 
permitting it to dry In swaths. 

(13) If It Is found Impossible to make 
a dummy road or tracks, the effect of a road 
may be created by using a "flat top" painted 
to simulate a roadway. 

(14) If a wooded crossroad is to be 
used as a park, all signs of activity may 
also be concealed In this manner. 



CAMOUFLAGE OF TRUCKS 



^ 



*»' NET 

THE NET IS HELD DP 
3t POLES WHICH KEEP 

it clear of the tm v 
the poles shouil no' 
bf Placed so thai 
thet form a square 




PARK TRUCK IN SHADOW 
.1 THEE, COVER LIGHTS 
MTH LEAVES, MNDSHIF'.D 
WITH D BLANKET OR 
BURlAF, AND DROP 
RE-H CURTAIN 



' . ' hi ENCIINI I n hN 



17. 



CAMOUFLAGE 



FIELD TRAINING MANUAL 
SECOND MARINE DIVISION 



41. USE OF THE FISH NET. -(a) The garlands 
used with the fish net should be woven In 
irregular patterns; thickly In the center 
and gradually thinning toward the edges. 
The garnish Is laid flat and kept running 
across the squares of the net (never 
diagonally). This gives best covering 
power In relation to the amount of material 
used, and the net keeps Its shape when 
folding up, and in transporting. The net 
cannot distort across the squares, but It 
can and does distort badly across the 
diagonals, thereby pulling diagonally laid 
garnish Into a string. 

(b) The method of running garnish out 
at right angles to and not parallel with 
the edges Is correct In practice as well 
as theory, giving more diffused edges and 
merging best with the surroundings. 

(c) Vehicle nets, as contrasted to "flat 
tops", should have a greater area of. the 
net garnished, keeping some parts of the 
edges comparatively full. 

(d) As mentioned In the beginning of this 
chapter, it Is impossible to foresee exactly 
In what type surroundings the vehicles and 
nets win be used. Consequently the color 
of the garnish is something of a problem. 
It has been found, however, that a net 
garnished in the center with garlands of 
light and dark green, and around the edges 
with brown and light earth, Is very effective. 
Any emergency correction may be made by 
rubbing in dust, dead leaves, etc. The 
garlands should be colored prior to their 
application to the net. This procedure 
saves both time and materials. 

(e) When using the standard 36' x 4 4' 
fish net, it is Important to bear in mind 
that, to be effective, the net must never 
touch any part of the vehicle. It should 
be at least 6" distant from all points. 
The net may be raised, lowered, or extended 
by the use of rods or poles which are usually 
a part of the standard equipment of each 
vehicle. Care should be taken to create 
shapes as irregular as possible. 

(f) If cloth garlands are not available, 
natural materials at hand should be used, 
such as grass, leaves, twigs, etc. If 
green vegetation is used, caution must be 
exercised in two respects: First, the foliage 
should be placed top-side up. This, because 
the under side of foliage is not so dense 
and therefore reflects light differently 
than the tops. Secondly, the foliage must 
be changed from time to time, as it dries 
up. 

(g) If fish net is not available, ordinary 
light weight chicken wire (1" or 2" mesh) 
may be effectively used with natural or 
artificial materials. 

42. EMERGENCY PAINTING IN F I ELD . -Sh oul d It 
become necessary to paint a vehicle in the 
field under adverse conditions, the following 
suggestions will be of value: 

(1) Use as small a quantity of blue 
and yellow paints as possible; they register 
light on a photograph. Red, brown, green, 
carbon or lampblack should be used. 

(2) In mixing paint, dark colors 
should be poured into and mixed with the 
light. Never the reverse. 

(3) If paints are not available, use 
may be made of pigments from surrounding 
earth. Such paints naturally have no 
lasting qualities, but they can be readily 
mixed and applied. 

(4) An emergency binder or "vehicle" 
can be made from either glue, flour, syrup 
or wild honey . 

(5) Water colors when used, fade four 
or five shades when drying. Oil paints, 
Just the reverse. 

(6) Gasoline may be effectively used 
for thinning. Too, it insures quick drying. 
Gasoline flattens color and reduces light 
reflection. If texture Is to be added, sand, 



sawdust or asbestos may be used. 

(7) After applying paint, the sand, 
gravel, etc., should be thrown on It while 
the paint Is still wet. A second coat of 
paint may be added where and if needed. 



SECTION X 
PAINTS 

43. PAINT. -(a) Paint consists of a pigment 
and binder. The pigment Is derived from 
earth or chemicals. The binder holds it 
together . 

(b) There are two kinds of binder material: 
Oil and glue . 

44. USE OF PAINT. -(a) Paint Is used to cover 
any surface. This may be done by spraying 
or brushing. Texture is added by throwing 
wood - s ha v i ng s , sand or gravel onto the 
freshly painted surface. 

(b) Texture should always be applied to 
smooth surfaces In order to eliminate 
reflection. 

45. MIXING. -(a) Theoretically, all colors 
can be obtained from the three primary 
colors--red, yellow and blue. 

(b) From these primary colors, secondary 
colors are derived — green, purple and orange. 

(c) Mixing any two primary paints in 
equal proportion results in creating a 
sec ondary color. 

(d) From secondary colors, tertiary 
(third group) colors are derived. 

(e ) When a particular color is determined 
upon but found to be too bright to blend 
with the natural surroundings, it may be 
dulled by adding its complement. 

(f) Black is not an especially good 
complement, but It can be used when others 
are not ava liable . 

(g) To dull any color use its complement. 
To lighten paints, use white. Adding binder 
will effectively lighten transparent paints. 



color c+iAnrr 




EQUAL PART9 -RED + Y£l_LOW--ORAN^'r 
EQUAL FftRTS - YELLOW rBLUE -- oRfeEN 
fQOAL PARTS -5LUE t RED Fff^PLt 
PORPLE -r-Of^NCxE = BROWN 
l^RANCtE 1-LtQEEN LT.CtRAY. 
CrRfctN -t PURPLL DARKCtRAV 

Fig. 4 1 



IAMOUFLAGE 



FIELD TRAINING MANUAL 
SECOND MARINE DIVISION 



46. COLOR CHART. -(Fig .41 ) By mixing the 
primary colors shown at the points or 
extremities of the large triangle, the 
secondary colors, Indicated In the center 
of the sides of the triangle, are obtained. 
By mixing these secondary colors, Indicated 
at the points of the smaller inverted 
triangle, the tertiary colors are obtained. 



SECTION XI 

DYES 

47. ANILINE DYES. -(a) Aniline dyes and 
pigments provide a highly versatile color 
stock without bulk. Because of the Intensity 
of aniline dyes, a much smaller quantity 
of this material would efficiently supplant 
a large quantity of the colors now provided 
for coloring or tinting purposes. 

(b) Aniline dyes, to a certain degree, 
are soluble in all waters. In hard or salt 
water a small amount of acetic acid, vinegar 
or urine, added to the solution will aid 
in mixing and prevent precipitation of the 
dye. However, If an acetic acid is not at 
hand, a mix of some kind can be made without 
them . 

(c) Dyes come In the same basic colors 
as paints and are mixed in like proportions 
to get desired shades as pigments. 

(d) Dyes are transparent, so a straight 
dye solution cannot be used as a paint. 
However, for dipping or spraying fiber of 
any kind the colors are sharper and truer. 

(e) To color or tone, paint with dyes. 
First, mix a solution approximately the 
shade desired. Then mix it into a binder 
such as flour and water paste or 
paste . 

(f) Weather-proof casein paint 
made in the following manner in the 
Use sifted wood ashes mixed with 
milk In the amount necessary to 
even, gummy paste. Add a strong dye solution 
of the desired color. The result will be 
a satisfactory casein paint paste. 

(g) Berry Juice, charcoal, lamp black 
or any coloring available added to this 
paste will result In a colored casein paint. 
Add water until the paste reaches the 
desired consistency for brushing or spraying. 

(h) Dyes, mixed with a base, can be used 
to supplant colored paints for semi- 
permanent work. If a colored (water) 
paint is used, but a still greater color 
strength is desired, add a dye solution. 
This will darken or more deeply color the 
paint . 

(1) As a spray or dip for any fabric or 
fiber, dyes will be found quite satisfactory. 
By using only a dye solution, grass and 
some types of foliage can be tinted (colored). 

(J) If an uncolored or lightly colored 
base paint Is mixed with a solution of dye 
of the shade desired, a satisfactory paint 
win result. Such paints adhere to wood, 
metal, painted surfaces and glass. 

48. DYES vs. PAINT IN C A M U FL A G E . -The 
use of dyes or pigments In the art of 
camouflage will be appreciably facilitated 
by considering the following factors: 

( 1 ) Ease of application and accomplish- 
ment of pur pose . 

(2) Permanency of colors. 
'Z ) C over lng value . 

4) Bulk (transportation problem). 
(5) Comparative cost. 

49. COMPARISONS. -(a ) By selecting the three 
primary colors (red., yellow and blue) and 
perhaps one or two additional colors such 
as brown and green (which may be required 
In Instances where the disguise of foliage 
and shrubbery Is necessary), It is possible 



casein 

can be 

field : 

canned 

make an 



to duplicate any desired shade by using 
either paints or dyes. 

(b) When using paints to make pastel or 
light shades, white paint is all that is 
necessary to reduce the standard colors 
selected. For example: If the standard 
green is dark green and a pastel shade of 
green Is necessary, Just mix white pigment 
with the dark green. 

(c) By the use of dyes, the depths of 
shades can be easily changed through diluting 
the dye solution. Or, If deep shades are 
desired, through adding more dry dye. 

(d) The successful application of paint 
to any surface is dependent upon the adhesive 
quality of the paint and the physical 
condition of the surface to which It Is to 
be applied. 

(e) A paint will not adhere to a (water) 
wet surface, nor to a greasy, dirty or waxy 
surface. (These conditions will frequently 
be encountered in the f 1 e 1 d - - n a t ura l 
protective coatings on certain types of 
growing plants, bark-stripped trees, etc.) 

(f) A wet surface will be no barrier 
in the application of dye, but oily or 
waxy surfaces may. 

(g) In some Instances It may be necessary 
to add an adhesive to the dye solution 
(such as gum arable, dextrose flour, etc.) 
In order to Impart color to the surface. 

(h) Dyes have no affinity for metallic 
surfaces. Therefore It will always be 
necessary to add an adhesive. 

(1) Paints, in most Instances, have good 
tenacity for metallic surfaces. 



50. PERMANENCY. -Paints are 
than dyes Insofar as fading 
is concerned. 



more permanent 
or water (rain) 



51. COVERING VALUES. -(a) The covering value 
of a paint varies with its consistency. 
One gallon of paint might cover 250 sq.ft., 
depending upon Its viscosity. A gallon of 
dye win probably cover 500 sq.ft. 

(b) A pound of dry dye, depending on 
type, will produce 12£ to 25 gallons of 
working solution. 

(c) Considering the weight of dry dye 
and Its covering possibilities as against 
paint, it would be necessary to transport, 



roughly, 250 
of dry dye . 



to 500 lbs. of paint for 1 lb. 



52. TYPES. -The types of dyes selected for 
experimental purposes are those that are 
the easiest to use --c ons lder I ng solubility 
in cold water and coloring strength. Also, 
they have an affinity for a greater variety 
of substances than any other types of dyes . 
These dyes are also soluble In alcohol. 

53. TOXICITY. -These dyes are not guaranteed 
non-toxic to humans. The t ox i c 1 ty - w 1 11 
vary with the individual. Some persons 
will suffer no ill effects whatsoever, 
whereas others might experience skin 
irr 1 ta t Ions . 

54. CONCLUSION. -Experimentation will determine 
if these dyes are satisfactory for any given 
purpose. It is suggested that these dyes 
be applied to all types of substances- 
stones, soil, sticks, burlap, cloth of 
various kinds, etc. --in order to determine 
their practicability to conditions character- 
izing a specific field. 



SECTION X 1 1 

BREAKAWAY HOUSES 

55. PURPOSE . -Breakaway houses are used for 
concealing weapons, supplies or positions. 
When it becomes necessary to erect such a 
"house" on an actual battlefield, materials 
from the immediate vicinity must be used. 



19 



CAMOUFLAGE 



FIELD TRAINING MANUAL 
SECOND MARINE DIVISION 



Vines or grass thongs may be used in place 
of nails. Measurements may be arrived at 
by eye -e s t ima te . 




Fig. 42 



56. 

be 

Pol 

ava 

the 

fra 

it 

bur 

re c 

12' 

rul 

tha 

It 

sec 

Jol 

the 

gun 

col 

awa 



CONSTRUCTION. -(a ) Breakaway houses can 
made wherever boards or poles are found. 
es 2" x 2" or 1" x 2", or any other 
liable lumber of a size approximating 
se measurements, should be used for the 
mework. When the framework is completed 
can be covered with either target-cloth, 
lap or branches . 

(b) The "house" most often used is 
tangular in shape and usually about 

to 14' high and 14' wide. A general 
e Is to build the house somewhat larger 
n the weapon it is Intended to conceal. 
Is constructed in two sections. These 
tlons, when completed and covered, are 
ned together by simply leaning one against 

other. When the time comes for the 
ners to go Into action, the "house" Is 
lapsed by merely pushing one section 
y from the other. (Figs. 43, 44) 




Fig. 43 



57. SIX-SIDED HOUSE. -(a) This type of "house" 
should be constructed (preferably) from 
1" x 2" or 2" x 2" lumber and should Include 
two side sections, two roof sections, and 
one section each for the front and rear. 
The top runners will be 14' long and are 
constructed exactly like the sides, the 
same number of poles being used. The only 
difference being that the center poles 




*-W 



Fig. 44 



should be 8 ■£ ' in length instead of 7'. 
This additional l^ 1 length provides the eaves, 
(b) The side sections will be 7' high 
x 14' long. The 7' poles should be nailed 
between the 14' runners so as to form a 
rectangle 14' x 7'. Five 7' poles should 
be secured--lnters persed--be tween the 14' 
runners, three in the middle and one at 
each end. The two top or roof sections 
made with four 7' poles, one 12' 
two 10' poles. The 12' pole will 
apex of the roof. The two 10' 
secured perpendicularly-- 
and the other seven feet 



should be 

pole , and 

form the 

poles should be 

one as the base 



above but parallel to the first. To complete 
this roof, two additional 7' poles will be 
needed. These should be joined in such a 
way as to form a triangle. 

(c) All sections, when set up, should 
be tied together with cord, rope or wire. 
Or, If such are not available, hemp, vines 
or other natural materials. Rope is 
preferable because it cuts easily, facili- 
tating complete collapse of the "house" 
immediately preceding the command, "Targets", 
at which time the ropes are cut and roof 
and sides fall away. 

(d) When the complete framework of the 
"house" is set up, it should be covered with 
target cloth or burlap and painted to blend 
with the surrounding terrain or to simulate 
a dwe lllng . (Fig. 43) 

58. MEASUREMENTS .-( a ) The measurements 
suggested In this section are to serve as 
a guide only. Houses should be constructed 
to a size or type that will meet the require- 
ments of the individual problem. 

(b) Two variations are shown in figures 
45 and 46. 



"TWO PIECtFAL«5t«;iDfe- 







1W ttnpu- Pwwr i> cctcstrucwp wrmx*2'sn*rs 
nvwownus.iw re««« iw covtatn wii» 

BumPOWDMAailll ICT1M <»TWWIDW1IH HAV1S 



Fig. 45 



20 



CAMOUFLAGE 



FIELD TRAINING MANUAL 
SECOND MARINE DIVISION 




Fig. 5 



(e) Another method for constructing 
plaster rocks Is shown In figures 50 and 
51. Build a rough frame to the required 
size. Throw brush or soil over and around 
this frame to give the "rock 11 irregular 
shape. Strips of target cloth or burlap 
should then be dipped in the plaster or 
mud and placed on and around the frame. 
Dirt and gravel should be thrown on the 
plaster-covered cloth before it dries. The 
"rock" can then be painted. 




and firing 
ha tche t or 



don't wT ^Tunrs 



60. ENTRANCE .-( a ) The entrance 
apertures can be cut out with 
bay one t . 

(b) The entrance is not always a cut-out. 
Passage to the "rock" may be by way of a 
tunnel connecting the "rock" with a spider 
trap some distance away. 

61. EXAMPLES. -"Rocks " made of target cloth 
dipped in mud and molded over a frame are 
shown In figures 52 and 53. 

68. STUMPS AND TREES. -(a) "Stumps" may be 
made by securing poles in an upright position 
and in the form of a circle. An assortment 
of short and long poles should be used to 
create the effect of a stump top. (Figs. 
54,55) The wide spaclngs should be filled 
in with brush, excelsior fibre or grass 
dipped in plaster or mud. 

(b) After covering the framework, plaster 
or mud should be thoroughly rubbed In and 




Fig. 52 




Fig. 53 



over the outside. Before drying sets in, 
make creases up and down the stump with a 
finger or stick. Then wet bunches of grass, 
fibre or cloth should be dipped in dirt 
and rubbed over the plaster stump for the 
purpose of inserting ridges and giving the 
stump a tree-bark effect. (Fig. 56) 

63. USES. -"Tree stumps" are used for observa- 
tion and snipers' posts. (Fig. 57) One or 
more small look-out holes should be cut 
through and concealed by a screening painted 
or colored to match the "stump". A "tree 
stump" made with a core of chicken wire and 
burlap is illustrated in figure 58. 

64. MUD SUBSTITUTE. -Plaster in most cases 
will not be available, but mud can be 
substituted in almost every case. The 
foregoing illustrates ways to build rocks, 
banks, stumps, logs and other deceptive 
measures in an easy and practical way in 
the field. A rough frame of brush, twigs 
and leaves made to simulate the contours 
of a rock and covered with mud can be made 
to appear a first-rate rock, the amount of 
effort and care expended governing the 
final effect. 



22 



:amouflage 



FIELD TRAINING MANUAL 
SECOND MARINE DIVISION 







' **sf?-J. 



Fig. 54 





Fig. 56 



i?&; 




Fig. 57 




Fig. 55 



Fig. 58 



\^ 



CAMOUFLAGE 



FIELD TRAINING MANUAL 
SECOND MARINE DIVISION 







Fig. 59 B 



24 . 



CAMOUFLAGE 



FIELD TRAINING MANUAL 
SECOND MARINE DIVISION 




Fig. 60 B 



25 



AMOUFLAGE 



FIELD TRAINING MANUAL 
SECOND MARINE DIVISION 



SECTION XIV 
MODELS 

65. DEFINITION. -A model Is a three dimensional 
reproduction In miniature, built to a 
determined scale, of any existing or 
contemplated man-made object. A model can 
either be constructed from working drawings 
or by rule of thumb. 

66. PURPOSE. -(a) A model Is employed for 
the purpose of permitting an examination 
and Inspection of a proposed project before 
any actual construction begins. It Is 
quicker, easier and certainly more economical 
to rectify possible mistakes, or effect 
changes and corrections, on a model than 
on a full-sized work. 

(b) A relief map of a specific area can 
be used to advantage for the purpose of 
modelling upon Its surface any proposed 
military Installation or camouflage scheme. 
(See Second Marine Division manual, "Relief 
Map Making" . ) 



(c) A model of a military Installation 
or camouflage scheme can be employed to 
Illustrate lectures or to give demonstrat lans 
on tactical problems or camouf lage discipline . 

67. SCOPE. -(a) If time and circumstance 
permit, the camoufleur can profit enormously 
by employing models to study and examine 
any of his contemplated projects, particularly 
if they are of an experimental nature. 

(b) The following are some of the 
situations wherein the time spent on 
constructing a model will be well worth the 
effort and prove to be of Inestimable value: 

(l)The further development of standard 
camouflage practices. It must not be taken 
for granted that, Just because a system has 
been adopted for concealing the position 
or the outline of an anti-aircraft gun, the 
accepted pattern cannot be improved. 

(2)The camouflaging of an Installation 
or an area situated in terrain features of 
a strange and unfamiliar pattern. 

(3) The camouflaging of a new weapon, 
vehicle, or other form of military invention 
presenting an unusual type or pattern. 

68. EXAMPLES .-Figures 69 to 62 Inclusive 
are photographs of models illustrating 
camouflage schemes prepared by the Walt 
Disney Studio unit for the 604th Engineer 
Battalion ( Camou f lage ) (Army ) . 











Fig. 61 



26 . 



CAMOUFLAGE 



FIELD TRAINING MANUAL 
SECOND MARINE DIVISION 




SECTION XV 

"CAMOUFLAGE DO'S AND DON'TS" 

69. CAMOUFLAGE DO'S. -(a) DO choose your 
position carefully. A proper "estimate 
of the situation" will make your work 
easier and avoid impossible camouflage 
problems . 

(b) DO use common sense. "To outwit 
the enemy, common sense seems to be very 
unc ommon . " 

(c) DO avoid the skyline when concealing 
against terrestrial observation. 

(d) DO make full use of natural cover. 
The cover of a spreading tree is worth 
truck loads of artificial material. 

(e) DO utilize ditches, hedges, edges 
of woods, folds in the ground, etc. These 
"accidents" of the ground will prevent 
accidents to you. 

(f ) DO avoid conspicuous landmarks. 
You don't want to be at a focal point of 
enemy attention. 

(g) DO keep in the shadow. The enemy 
can't see or take pictures of something 
in the shade . 

(h) DO remember that shadows move. 
Although shadows as a rule fall toward the 
north of an object, the length and direction 
of such shadows change throughout the day. 

(1) DO avoid all regularities of line 
or spacing. Nature has no straight lines 
and the enemy Is looking for unnatural signs. 

(J) DO remember that anything unusual 
catches the eye of the enemy observer. 
Try to blend into the background; you want 
to be inconspicuous. 

(k) DO garnish carefully. Natural 
garnishing must look NATURAL--so use 
material similar to that In the vicinity 
and support it as it would grow. 



(1) DO thin out garnishing at the edges. 
A regularly garnished net casts a regular 
shadow which is obviously out of place in 
the surroundings. It will look like a 
stamp and we don't want to pay postage on 
our own death bombs. 

(m ) DO change dead 
it and something (or 
be dead . 

or 
to 



vege ta t i on . Forge t 
somebody) else will 



turf 
used 



topsoll when digging 
cover your spoil on 



bold 
You 



patterns in garnishing 
can't see a two foot 



outline from a distance of 



(n) DO keep 
In . It can be 
the para pe t . 

( o ) DO make 
or painting, 
"break" In the 
a mile or two . 

(p) DO "look before you leap". Plan 
and lay out your position in detail before 
moving In and trampling down promiscuously. 
Signs of activity lead to enemy activity 
which reduces the possibility of further 
ac t i v 1 ty per 1 od . 

(q) DO observe camouflage discipline 
in making a reconnaissance. Signs of 
activity before occupation are Just as 
disastrous as signs afterward. 

(r) DO restrict movement when the enemy 
Is observing. A motionless object may 
escape detection; a moving one will attract 
attention. 

(s) DO take extra care when tired. 
Fatigue leads to carelessness. 

(t) DO work In the shade or at night. 
The enemy is looking for you at all times 
but his eyes are not as good as a cat's. 
He can't hit what he can't see. 

(u) DO keep your flat tops "flat". 
Sagging nets are worse than baggy knees. 

(v) DO use existing roads and paths. 
Traffic there will not leave noticeable 
signs . 

(w) DO conceal the entire layout. If 
one tent or truck Is seen, then all of the 
remaining installation Is betrayed. 



27 



CAMOUFLAGE 



FIELD TRAINING MANUAL 
SECOND MARINE DIVISION 




eJ^^-_ 



HlDC YOUR ^POIL ." 



70. CAMOUFLAGE DON'TS.-(a) DON'T be careless 
and give away your buddies. They're depending 
on you Just as you are depending on them. 

(b) DON'T look up at airplanes. The 
enemy Is looking for you too and you're 
easier to hit than he Is. 

(c) DON'T move unless you have to; then 
think first how you can move to cover most 
unobs trus lvely . 

(d) DON'T use artificial materials unless 
the natural cover Is Insufficient. Natural 
cover blends best with Nature. 

(e) DON'T be regular In your layout. 
Regularity Is a military attribute and the 
enemy recognizes It as such. 

(f) DON'T take shortcuts over the open 
or step outside cover. Every time you put 



your foot down you attract enemy attention. 

(g) DON'T walk around the outside of a 
net to fix the camouflage. Where you walk 
win be light In a photograph; the camouflage 
will be dark. Do you think the enemy win 
miss such a bullseye? 

(h) DON'T hide your Installation and 
leave your spoil and belongings In the open. 
Remember the ostrich. 

(1) DON'T let your flat tops sag. They 
will photograph, like wet blankets laid out 
on brushes and they are not a bit safer. 

(J) DON'T lower the sides of your 
camouflage. Your commanding officer cannot 
see what you are doing, but when the enemy 
sees the shadow thrown by these sides he 
will be even more severe. 

(k) DON'T hide under matted camouflage. 
It Is as conspicuous as a bad haircut. 

(1) DON'T end a road at an installation 
or make a lot of trails to a position. Did 
you ever lose your way to a canteen? 

(m) DON'T leave things near the edge of 
your camouflage. The edge of your camouflage 
isn't and shouldn't be--opaque. 

(n) DON'T put up bad camouflage and think 

veil. There aren't any in war. 

crowd around an Installation. 

reduces the likelihood of 

trampling. 

clean up an old position. It 
won't look natural to the enemy. If you're 
moving out, it will remain as a dummy. If 
you're moving In, you don't want to change 
the appearance . 

(q) DON'T expose lights or make a great 
deal of smoke. The enemy is looking for 
such beacons. 



******** 



it's a magic 
(o) DON'T 
Dispersion 
conspicuous 
(p) DON'T 



28 



CAMOUFLAGE 



FIELD TRAINING MANUAL 
SECOND MARINE DIVISION 




Pango Pango Harbor, American Samoa 



POLYNESIAN NATIVE CRAFTS 



SECTION I 

GENERAL 

1. PURPOSE AND SCOPE. -The Inhabitant 
the South Pacific Islands are partlcul 
skillful In crafts applicable to camoufl 
such as weaving mats and nets, thatch 
dyeing, and the making of fibre ropes 
cords. Whenever practical, our fo 
operating In the Southwestern Pacific 
will undoubtedly employ native labor 
these, and other, activities. For the 
part, however, the practice will of neces 
be restricted to areas removed from ac 
combat. Familiarity, therefore, with cer 
methods and materials employed in this 
may prove to be of the utmost value 
battle zone, for camouflage or other purpo 
at a time when local help Is unobtalna 
A rough general knowledge and some pract 
in a few native crafts, is all tha 



hi a levy native craus, is ail t n a 
necessary and can be acquired with 11 
effort, as the methods employed are si 
and easy to learn. The data coliecte 
the following sections is to be use 
a guide and fcr general reference purpo 
to be studied and applied as occasion dem 
In suitable localities in the fi 

2. REFERENCE. -The bulk of the data conta 
herein has been compiled from publlcat 
of the Bernlce P. Bishop Museum, Honol 
It Is suggested that, should the opportu 
occur, advantage be taken of the serv 
of the museum for further reference. 
of the Illustrations have been taken 
the following publications: "Our Faml 
Island Trees", by Mary Dillingham Fr 
"The Indigenous Trees of the Hawa 
Islands", by Joseph F. Rock; "The 
Lover's Hawaii", by Ralph D. Corn 



s of 
arly 
age , 
ing , 

and 
re es 
area 

for 
mos t 
slty 
tual 
tain 
work 
in a 
ses , 
ble . 
ice , 
t is 
ttle 
mple 
d in 
d as 
ses , 
ands 
eld . 

lned 
1 ons 
u lu . 
nlty 
ices 
Some 
from 
liar 
ear ; 
llan 
Tree 
ell . 



3. RECOGNITION OF MATER I ALS . -Re c ogn 1 1 1 on 
of plant life used in native industry is 
essential, and Its Importance to the 
successful and speedy conclusion of any 
work undertaken cannot be over emphasized. 
The vegetation generally employed is usually 
of a common variety and grows abundantly 
on a large majority of the islands, but it 
must be remembered that a single plant, or 
tree, may be known by one of half a dozen 
native names, depending on the locality in 
which you find It; consequently, the 
importance of self-recognition is obvious. 
This is a study that can best be made on 



the ground, and every advantage should be 
taken of an opportunity to do so. Local 
knowledge is important and should be sought 
whenever possible as many natives are 
experienced in crafts made from plant life 
peculiar to their locality only. 



SECTION II 
DYES 

4. GENERAL REMARKS. -(a) Native dyes are in 
common use at the present time in the South 
Pacific islands. The majority of them are 
easily made, in most cases requiring little 
more than the basic material which, when 
squeezed or mixed with water, gives the 
dye. Others require more care in preparation, 
but It will be found well worth the trouble 
If other materials are unobtainable. Some 
of the plant elements used for dyes are 
seasonable and are, therefore, only available 
at certain times of the year. 

(b) Soil and clay are used on many islands 
for dyeing purposes. Local observation and 
inquiry will be necessary In this Instance 
and, in fact, any likely material, vegetable 
mineral, should be the object of experi- 

in localities where proper 

cannot be obtained or where a 

In d oub t . 

setting colors, seawater or 
burned coral lime are extensively used. 

5. COLORS AND METHODS. -(1) BROWN. 

(a) Sappan wood, or slbucao, is a 
large, straggling, prickly, seml-c 1 lmb ing 
shrub that yields a brown dye. If mixed 
with coral lime it gives a dark red color. 
(b)A brown dye is obtained by mixing 
the inner bark of the panl tree with seawater. 
(c) A reddish-brown dye is made from 
the bark of the o'a tree. The bark is 
scraped from the growing tree. The chips 
are gathered in a cloth or matting and the 
Juice Is squeezed, by wringing, into a pan. 
The bark has to be dealt with the same day 
that it is procured. It is surprising 
amount of liquid that is obtained from 
it can be covered and stored 
some time. The fluid forms 
, nothing being added to 
Cloth can be stained brown 



or 

mentation 
lnf ormat 1 on 
specimen Is 
( c ) For 



the 
the 
and 
the 
It . 
by 



bark, and 
will last 
full dye 
(d) 
spreading the material 
patch, (f lg.l ) . 

(2) RED AND ORANGE. 

(a) A bright red dye Is obtained from 
the seeds of the loa tree. The seeds are 
simply squeezed with the fingers and the 
Juice collected in a bowl. It Is only 



XWr^fcjf, 



In the mud of a taro 




M 



Lagoon and Coconut Trees 



CAMOUFLAGE 



FIELD TRAINING MANUAL 
SECOND MARINE DIVISION 




Fig. 1 
Taro Patch 




Fig. 2 
Malay Apple 



available during seeding time, as ther 
no way of keeping or preserving It. 

(b)A bright crimson color Is obta 
by mixing the bark, of the nonu fl'af 
or Malay apple, (fig. 2), with seawater 
lime . 

(c) The fruit of the fig or ba 
tree, (figs. 3, 4), yields a milky J u 
The leaves of the kou tree are Immerse 
the fluid and squeezed. Pink color 
appears and, after continued treatm 
deepens Into a brilliant crimson 

(d) Red dyes can be obtained from 
bark of the kolea tree, the fruit of 
ohla al or mountain apple tree, (fig 
and the leaves of two ferns, the palaa 
the ama u mau . 



e Is 

lned 

1 'a , 

and 

nyan 

Ice . 

d In 

soon 

ent , 

dye . 

the 

the 

.5), 

and 




Fig. 3 
Wild Fig Tree 




Fig. 4 
Banyan Tree 



CAMOUFLAGE 



FIELD TRAINING MANUAL 
SECOND MARINE DIVISION 




Fig. 
Mountain 



(e) The tuber, or underground stem, 
of the turmeric plant, (fig. 6), gives a deep 
orange-colored juice. 

(3) YELLOW. 

(a) This dye is made from the root 
of the ango plant. After the roots are 
gathered they are washed in seawater. They 
are then grated and, when mixed with fresh 
water, give a dull yellow color. If mixed 
with a portion of the reddish-brown dye of 
the o'a tree, the yellow becomes much 
br 1 ghter . 

(b) Yellow dyes can be made from the 
wood and root of the nonl tree, the fruit 
pulp of the nau, or gardenia, and the bark 
and root of the hoolei tree. 

(4) BLUE 

(a) Juice obtained from the berries 
of the ukl plant furnishes a rather pale, 
but lasting, blue color. 

(b)The leaves of the Indigo, locally 
known as the tayum or tagum plant, give a 
rich blue dye. The leaves are mixed with 
charcoal In a pit and water is poured on. 
Cloth, placed In this solution, will take 
on various shades of blue depending on the 
length of immersion, which can be anywhere 
from one to ten days. 

(5) OREEN. The leaves of the mao shrub, 
when crushed and mixed with water, give a 
good green dye. It Is not dependable however, 
due to its rapid fading tendencies. 

(6) PURPLE. The plantain or banana plant 
The trunk of the plant 

the sap allowed to drip 



g Ives a pur pie dye . 
is cut through and 
into a container. 
(7) BLACK. 

'(a) Black or gray dye Is made from 
a concentrated or diluted mixture of charcoal 
In water or candlenut oil. Charcoal Is 
obtained by roasting the candlenut or sugar 



cane. A black or gray tint can be applied 
to cloth by rubbing the surface with a 
cotton bag containing powdered charcoal. 
(b)A perfectly black dye can be made 
from the seed kernels of the candlenut 
tree, also known as the lama or kukul tree, 
(fig. 7). The hard-shelled nuts are cooked 
thoroughly in an oven, after which the nuts 
are cracked and the kernels removed. The 
kernels are then set alight In a fireplace 
that has been roofed with stone and sheltered 
from the wind. The nuts are very oily and 
burn readily, emitting a black, oily smoke. 
The fine black soot adheres to the surface 
of the stone and, when enough soot has 
accumulated, the roof Is removed and the 
soot scraped off into a container. The 
stone is replaced and the operation repeated- 










Fig. 6 
Turmeric Plant 




Fig. 7 
Candlenut Kernels 



CAMOUFLAGE 



FIELD TRAINING MANUAL 
SECOND MARINE DIVISION 



The dry powder, when used, Is mixed with 
reddish-brown o'a dye and not with water. 
The dye is perfectly black and the o'a 
gives It a shiny appearance. 

(8) WHITE. Pieces of coral, baked over 
a hot fire until they crumble, form coral 
lime. A fine whitewash Is obtained from 
the powder when mixed with seawater. 




HHHI 



Native Canoe 




Fig. 8 
Arr owr o o t 



SECTION III 

PASTES, GLUES AND BRUSHES 

6. PASTES AND GLUES. -(a) Arrowroot (fl 
The tuber, or underground stem, o 
arrowroot is washed and cooked in an 
It then forms a ball of paste which, 
drying, may be dipped every now and 
In water to moisten It. 

(b) Breadfruit (fig. 9). The over 
breadfruit is very sticky and tenac 
The top of the fruit Is removed an 
rind acts as a natural glue pot conta 
the softened, fleshy substance. Th 
nea is the best kind of breadfrul 
paste. Some varieties are not suit 
Heated breadfruit gum, smeared ove 
seams of a boat, provides satlsfa 
caulking . 



8.8) . 
f the 
oven . 
upon 
again 

-r ipe 
lous . 
d the 
1 n 1 n g 
e ulu 
t for 
able . 
r the 
c tory 




Fig. 
Breadfruit 



(c) Fau songa. The fau 
plant whose 
for 1 lnes ai 
copious, c 
when the bark 



songa. The fau songa is the 

bark furnishes the best material 

ind cords. The bark contains a 

Hear gum which drains freely 

irk Is cu t . 



7. BRUSHES. -(a) The keys of the pandanus 
fruit, (fig. 10), that have fallen to the 
ground and become dry, form neat natural 
brushes. The thicker, outer part acts as 
a handle, while the stiff fibres of the 
Inner, smaller end are trimmed to form 
the brush . 







FIELD TRAINING MANUAL 
SECOND MARINE DIVISION 



(b) Larger brushes are made of coconut 
husk which Is trimmed to suitable sizes. 
Brushes are also made by breaking the ends 
of a piece of coconut leaf midrib, or cane, 
to split up the fibrous core into a brush- 
like a ppearance . 




Native Hut 

SECTION IV 

ROPES AND CORDS 

8. THE MATERIAL .-(a ) General. The plants 
which supply material for cordage are the 
fau or fau tu, the fau songa or fau olonga, 
the matl or matlata, the breadfruit and the 
coconut. These plants grow abundantly and 
practically everywhere. Except for the 
coconut, the inner bark, or bast, of the 



plants is used and It can be readily split 
off from the outer bark. For finer cords, 
the bast is scraped on a board with a shell 
to remove coloring matter or any gummy 
substance. After being scraped, the strips 
are usually braided together and can be 
rendered whiter by soaking in seawater, 
rubbing in sand, and bleaching In the sun. 




Fig. 11 
C oc onu t Tree 



(t>) lhe_Fau. The fau plant supplies the 
material for ordinary ropes. The whole bark 
Is used, In wide strips for heavy work such 
as tying scaffolding and framework, or In 
narrow strips for minor purposes. 

(c) Olonga. Olonga is stronger than fau 
tu but does not grow in such quantity. For 
this reason Its use is generally restricted 
to finer c ord s . 

(d) Matlata. The matlata supplies a 
very strong fibre in the bast of the slender 
rods which characterize the plant. It is 
used as cordage for the making of tough and 
strong fish nets. Shark nets, for Instance, 
are made from matlata cordage. 

(e) Breadfruit (fig. 9). The bast of the 
younger shoots of the variety of breadfruit 
known as ulu manna are used. Seine nets 
are made of two-ply twisted cords of 
bread f ru 1 1 bas t . 

(f) Coconut (figs .11 ,12) . The coconut 
supplies strong fibres from the husk 
surrounding the fruit. The large quantity 
of lnterflbrous material is separated by 
a special process. The three-ply braid Is 
plaited from It and also good strong ropes. 




Fig. 
Coconut 



12 

Hus ks 



CAMOUFLAGE 



FIELD TRAINING MANUAL 
SECOND MARINE DIVISION 



9. PLA ITING .-The terra "plaiting" is used 
so much with cordage that, as a general 
term, it need not be confusing. There are 
two distinct methods of plaiting, twisting 
and braiding. 

0=212 
ually 
er lal 
ldual 
h the 
The 
pos e . 
Is ted 
nder . 
fresh 
g ply 

them 

luftc iiici u c i ui c i uiiiug uuc unu y i i c o aTOUnd 

each other. Besides the simple Join of 
new strands by direct overlapping, two 
other methods are used, ( f lgs .13, 14 ) . In 
the case of coconut fibre the strands are 
twisted individually only, and then braided 
over and under. Three or more plies can be 
used for bra id lng . 






Figure 1 3 . —Two-ply cord, joining ply (so'o) : a, the ply (2) is the shortening 
ply; b, the new strand (3) is directly laid over the short ply (2) from below with its 
short end (3O projecting upwards past the point of joining; c, the other ply (1) is 
twisted around over the reinforced ply (2) ; d, the projecting upper short end (3') is 
doubled down over the other ply ( 1 ) ; e, the twisting is carried on and both the short 
end (3O of the new strand, and the short ply (2) is buried so to speak in the twists, 
while the new strand (3). continues the ply (2). 




Figure 14. — Two-ply cord, alternate join: a, the alternative method is exactly the 
same in result but the opposite in commencement ' technique. The ply (2) is again the 
shortening ply.' b, The new strand (3) is added from above with its short end (3') on 
the long ply (1) ; c, the ply (i) with the short end ($) is twisted over the short ply 
(2) ; d, the long end of the hew strand (3) is doubled down over the short strand (2) ; 
e, the twisting is carried on with the same results as in figure 125. 



(°) Thre e^Ely^c ords . Three-ply cords 
are usually made from fau songa and matiata. 
Finer cords are made from the former and 
thicker lines from the latter. The bast 
Is divided into appropriate thicknesses and 
rolled separately into strands. Three strands 
are held between forefinger and thumb in 
such a way that they are slightly spaced 
apart. Still holding them firmly, they 
are laid transversely over the right thigh. 
The right palm towards the base of the 
fingers is laid over the three strands and 
rolled firmly downwards or away from the 
body. The first part of the movement rolls 
each strand on Itself Into three separate 
twisted strands during the outward movement, 
the right palm having worked over the strands 
to near the wrist. The left hand Is slacked 
slightly and the last part of the movement 
twists the three strands over each other 
into a three-ply cord. At the end of the 
outward sweep, the palm Is turned over on 
its outer edge and returned towards the body 
with a firmer pressure that twists the plies 
more closely together in the twist already 
commenced. The left hand is shifted down 
to hold the end of the section that has been 
firmly twisted. The ends of the three plies 
are separated and again held In the left 
hand while an outward and backward sweep 
another short section. By 
this operation, and by proper 
length of cord can be obtained, 
this thickness of three-ply Is 
doubling over method with the 
added from below, (fig. 15). 



completes 
continuing 
Joining, any 
The Join in 
made by the 
new strand 



Figure 15 — Three-ply twisted cord, join: o, ply (1) is the shortening ply; b, the 
new strand (4) is placed over the short ply (1) from below with its short end (4') pro- 
jecting upwards beyond the point of joining; c, the three plies are held apart by the left 
hand on the thigh, while the right hand rolls the new strand (4) and the short ply (1) 
together. The short end (4') of the new ply is then turned down on the next ply (2) ; 
d, the ply (2) and the short end (4') are rolled together on the thigh. To complete the 
rolling, the ply (3) is also rolled separately; t, the three strands are rolled as in the 
usual milo technique. In well-made cord, the join (5) can hardly be seen. 

11. BRAIDING CORDS AND LINES. -(a) Se.Qn.lt 
braid. Sennit braid is the most important 
single article in Polynesian usage. The 
coconut from which the braid is made is 
known as the niu afa or sennit. The husk 
Is thick, about 13 Inches long, and the 
nut comparatively small. When the sennit 
nut cannot be obtained, ordinary nuts can 
be used . 

(b) Tre a tme nt_of _husk . The husk is 
removed in even, longitudinal segments. 
The object is to separate the interflbrous 
material from the fibre. Most of them 
require soaking In water to soften the 
material. Some green husks require 4 to 
5 days soaking, others a month or more. 
It Is important to recognize types that 
require the least soaking. After the 
material has softened, the Interflbrous 
material is removed by beating the husk 
sections with a wooden mallet or club. 
The outer skin is peeled off, the inner, 
short part removed, and the end of the 
segment is held with one hand while the 
pounding takes place. The interflbrous 
material flies off under the beating and 
the fibre can be loosened and flicked off 
after every few blows. The ends are reversed 
and the beating continued until only the 
cleaned fibres remain. The interflbrous 
material has a vile odor which is painfully 
evident while the husk beating is going on. 
The fibre having been collected, it is now 
washed and left exposed to sun and air to 
dry . 

(°) E° 1 I iQ£_the _s trands . The short 
fibres are separated from the long and 
discarded. A sufficient number of good 
fibres are collected for a strand. They 
are held by the left thumb and forefinger 
while some of the fibres are pulled out 
slightly at each end, not only to lengthen 
the strand, but to thin the ends for Joining 
purposes. A single fibre is separated, its 
middle placed against the strand, and one 
end twisted around It with the right hand. 
The other end of the single fibre Is then 
doubled back and the strand twirled between 
the finger and thumb to finish the rolling 
of the binding fibre. The strand is now 
rolled on the right thigh with the right 
palm and Is then laid down and the process 
repeated until a sufficient quantity has 
been made . 

(d) flailing. In plaiting the fibre 
braid, the piles are held between the left 
thumb and forefinger with the thumb uppermost 
and plaiting is directed away from the body. 
The technique thus consists of pulling 
whatever strand Is In the middle position 
outwards under a side ply, first on one 
side, and then on the other. Whilst the 
right hand pulls the middle ply outwards 
and under, the left thumb rolls the side 
ply over Into the middle position. The 
left thumb also, by downward pressure with 
the left forefinger, keeps the plies in 
their relative positions after each twist 
is made. The plaited part, therefore, 
passes backward under the thumb towards 
the body, (fig. 16). It is Just the free 
edge of the braiding that protrudes beyond 
the thumb, but in this and following figures, 
the thumb Is shown well back so as not to 
obscure the technique. 



CAMOUFLAGE 



FIELD TRAINING MANUAL 
SECOND MARINE DIVISION 




Figure 16 .—Three-ply sennit braid, plait technique: a, each ply is formed by a 
single ja'ata'a strand of which there are three; b, the middle ply (l) is pulled outwards 
by the right hand, under the left ply (2), which brings the ply (2) into the middle posi- 
tion; c. the middle ply (2) is pulled outwards under the right, ply (3) which brings (3) 
to the middle position; d. the middle ply (3) is pulled outwards to the left under the left 
ply ( 1 ) ; ?, the continuation of the above results as shown. 




Figure 17. — Three-ply sennit braid, join of ply: o, the short ply (1) has been 
worked to the .middle position; b, the new strand (4) is added to the short ply (1) with 
its short end (4') projecting back on the completed work; c, the middle ply (1 and 4) 
is pulled out to the right under the side ply (2) which comes to the middle position ; 

d, the ply (z) is pulled out to the left under the side ply (3) when (3) comes to the 
middle position, the short end (4') of the new strand (4) is doubled forward on (3) ; 

e, the braiding goes on in the usual way and only the doubled over short end (5) is seen 
in the middle line. 

( e ) The_Joln. A fresh strand is added 
to a shortening~ply in much the same manner 
as in a twisted cord. The rule is to bring 
the short ply into the middle position and 
add the new strand to It with its short 
end projecting back on the complete work 
where it Is held under the left thumb, 
(fig. 17). As the braiding proceeds, the 
fingers naturally feel the thickness of the 
piles. If one is felt to be too thin and 
needs reinforcing, a fresh strand is added 
In a manner opposite to the Join above, 
(fig. 18). The principle of reinforcing a 
thin ply Is to add a new strand from below 
with its short end on a long ply In the 
middle portion. =A couple of turns are made 
to bring the thin ply into the middle 
position, when the long end of the new 
strand Is doubled forward to Join It. The 
braiding goes on until the required length 
is reached. The end of the braid la stopped 
by tying the two outer piles together in 
the first part of a reef knot. 




Figure 18. — Three-ply sennit braid, reinforcing thin ply: a, the ply (3) is too 
thin and needs reinforcing; b, the new strand (4) is added from below to the ply (1) 
which is in the middle position. The short end (4') of the new strand rests on (1) while 
the long end (4) is directed back on the braid, c, The middle ply (1) with the short 
end (4') is pulled outwards to the right under the side ply (2). After (2) comes into 
the middle position, it is pulled outwards to the left under the side ply (3) which comes 
to the middle position, d. The middle ply (3) is the one that needs reinforcing. The 
reinforcing element (4) is therefore doubled forward on (3) and everything is ready 
to continue the ordinary braiding, e, The braiding is continued, (3 and 4) being treated 
as one ply. The only part of the join seen is the doubled over new strand at (5) in the 
middle Hue. 

( f ) U8g.s. The ordinary three-ply braid 
Is used for lashing houses, canoes and for 
general purposes. Quickness In manufacture 
and efficiency In use are the guiding 
principles In braiding of this type. 

12. ROPES. -(a) Two = p.ly__Twls t . Rough ropes 
of fau bast are quickly made , ( f Ig . 1 9 ) . New 
strands are added by doubling down the short 
end on the other ply as in figure 13. The 
piles are twisted with the hands and plaited 
towards the body, the commencing end being 
fixed to a stake or post. The individual 
plies are twisted to the right and then 
crossed over the other ply from above, 
downwards and to the left. 

(b) Sgark Rope. A shark rope Is a three- 
ply twlstetPrope in which each ply Is formed 
of a number of strands of the common three- 
ply braid. As many as nine strands have 
been used In each ply. Five fathoms of 
untwisted sennit braid will make a little 
over four fathoms of rope. Half the total 



V 




Fig. 19 

number of strands required, but of twice 
the length, are doubled at the middle. A 
space Is left at the looped end to form 
the eye for a loop and a stick is passed 
through. The stick Is suspended and lashed 
against a beam so that It will not rotate. 
The strands are lashed together with a 
piece of cord beneath the stick. The 
strands are divided Into three equal parts 
to form plies. Each ply thus formed Is 
taken charge of by an assistant, who ties 
a short cross stick to the lower end of his 
ply. The chief rope maker uses a mature, 
dry, unhusked coconut with three longitudinal 
grooves cut in it to correspond with the 
plies. This is inserted under the piles 
close to the upper binding around the 
strands. The three assistants then twist 
their sticks in the same direction so as 
to twist the strands of their respective 
piles. As the piles become closely twisted, 
they are allowed to twist around each other 
to form the rope. The chief rope maker 
manipulates the coconut gage by moving It 
downwards as the assistants walk around 
In the same direction. The process Is 
continued until the rope is completed. The 
three-ply twist makes a very strong rope 
that will hold any shark. 

13. NETS. -The methods used by the Polynesians 
In the making of nets is similar to the 
system employed by the Second Marine 
Division Camouflage School. No explanation, 
therefore, of native methods, is considered 
necessary. Reference should be made to the 
section of this manual devoted to the making 
of nets. 




Samoan Ch le f ta In 



******** 



1 



Camouflage . 



ll,o96 




Library of the Marine Corps 




3000199225